Idaho law limits the amount that a creditor can garnish (take) from your wages for repayment of debts. Both Idaho and federal wage garnishment laws (also called wage attachments) place the same limits on how much of your paycheck may be garnished. For the most part, creditors with judgments can take only 25% of your net wages after required deductions. However, for a few types of debts, creditors can take more.
Read on to learn about wage garnishment law in Idaho.
A wage garnishment or wage attachment is an order from a court or a government agency that is sent to your employer. It requires your employer to withhold a certain amount of money from your paycheck and then send this money directly to your creditor.
Different garnishment rules apply to different types of debt -- and there are legal limits on how much of your paycheck can be garnished.
To learn more about how wage garnishments work, how to object to a wage garnishment, and more, see our Wage Garnishment and Attachment topic.
Most creditors cannot get a wage garnishment order until they have first obtained a court judgment stating that you owe the creditor money. For example, if you are behind on credit card payments or owe a doctor's bill, those creditors cannot garnish your wages (unless they sue you and get a judgment).
However, there are a few exceptions to this rule. Your wages can be garnished without a court judgment for:
There are limits to how much money can be garnished from your paycheck. The idea is that you should have enough left to pay for living expenses.
Federal law places limits on wage garnishment amounts. While states are free to impose stricter limits, Idaho has not done so. That means the federal law governs in Idaho. Here are the rules:
For any given workweek, creditors are allowed to garnish the lesser of:
"Disposable earnings" are those wages left after your employer has made deductions required by law.
Example. Let's assume you earn $500 per week and your net wages (disposable earnings) are $400 after all required deductions. 30 times the current federal hourly minimum wage ($7.25) is $217.50. This means that your wages can be garnished up to $100 ($400 times 25%) or $182.50 ($400 minus $217.50) per week, whichever is less. As a result, your wages may only be garnished up to $100 per week.
If you owe child support, student loans, or taxes, the government or creditor can garnish your wages without getting a court judgment. The amount that can be garnished is different too.
Since 1988, all court orders for child support include an automatic income withholding order. The other parent can also get a wage garnishment order from the court if you get behind in child support payments. (To learn about income withholding orders and other ways child support can be collected, see Child Support Enforcement Obligations.)
In Idaho, up to 50% of your disposable earnings may be withheld to pay child support. (Learn more about wage garnishment for child support arrears.)
If you are in default on a federal student loan, the U.S. Department of Education or any entity collecting for this agency can garnish your wages without first getting a court judgment – this is called an administrative garnishment. The most that the Department of Education can garnish is 15% of your disposable income, but not more than 30 times the minimum wage. To learn more, see the articles in Student Loan Debt.
The federal government can garnish your wages if you owe back taxes, even without a court judgment. The amount it can garnish depends on how many dependents you have and your deduction rate.
States and local governments may also be able to garnish your wages to collect unpaid state and local taxes. Contact your state labor department to find out more. (You will find a link to your state labor department below.)
If you have more than one garnishment, the total amount that can be garnished is limited to 25%. For example, if the federal government is garnishing 15% of your income to repay defaulted student loans and your employer receives a second wage garnishment order, the employer can only take another 10% of your income to send to the second creditor.
Complying with wage garnishment orders can be a hassle for your employer; some might be inclined to terminate your employment rather than comply with the order. State and federal law provides some protection for you in this situation.
According to federal law, your employer cannot discharge you if you have one wage garnishment. However, federal law won't protect you if you have more than one wage garnishment order.
In Idaho, your employer can't discharge you because of a wage garnishment regardless of how many garnishment orders you have.
To find more information about wage garnishment limits in Idaho, including the procedures that employers must follow in carrying out wage garnishment orders, check out the website of the Idaho Department of Labor at http://labor.idaho.gov.