Federal and state laws heavily regulate mortgage loan servicing and foreclosure processes. Most of these laws give protections to borrowers. Servicers generally have to provide borrowers with loss mitigation opportunities, account for each foreclosure step, and strictly comply with foreclosure laws.
Also, most people who take out a loan to buy a residential property in Hawaii sign a promissory note and mortgage. These documents give homeowners some contractual rights in addition to federal and state legal protections.
So, don't get caught off guard if you're a Hawaii homeowner behind in mortgage payments. Learn about each step in a Hawaii foreclosure, from missing your first payment to a foreclosure sale.
Once you understand the process, you can make the most of your situation and, hopefully, work out a way to save your home or at least get through the process with as little anxiety as possible.
In a Hawaii foreclosure, you'll most likely get the right to:
The period after you fall behind in payments, but before a foreclosure officially starts, is generally called the "preforeclosure" stage. (Sometimes, people refer to the period before a foreclosure sale actually happens as "preforeclosure," too.)
During this time, the servicer can charge you various fees, like late charges and inspection fees, and, in most cases, must inform you about ways to avoid foreclosure and send you a preforeclosure notice called a "breach letter."
If you miss a payment, most loans include a ten or fifteen-day grace period, after which time the servicer will assess a late fee. Each month you miss a payment, the servicer will charge this fee. Look at the promissory note you signed to find out your loan's late charge amount and grace period. You can also find this information on your monthly mortgage statement.
Also, many Hawaii mortgages allow the lender (or the current loan holder, referred to as the "lender" in this article) to take necessary steps to protect its interest in the property. Property inspections are performed to ensure that the home is occupied and appropriately maintained. Inspections, which are generally drive-by, are usually ordered automatically once the loan goes into default and typically cost around $10 or $15.
Additional types of fees the servicer might charge include, among others, fees for broker's price opinions, which are like appraisals, and property preservation costs, such as for yard maintenance or winterizing an abandoned home.
Under federal mortgage servicing laws, if the property is your principal residence, the servicer must contact, or attempt to contact, you by phone to discuss loss mitigation options, like a loan modification, forbearance, or repayment plan, no later than 36 days after you miss a payment and again within 36 days after each following delinquency.
No later than 45 days after missing a payment, the servicer has to inform you in writing about loss mitigation options that might be available and appoint personnel to help you try to work out a way to avoid foreclosure. A few exceptions are in place for some of these requirements, though, like if you've filed for bankruptcy or asked the servicer not to contact you under the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act. (12 C.F.R. §§ 1024.30, 1024.39, 1024.40).
Federal mortgage servicing laws also prohibit dual tracking (pursuing a foreclosure while a complete loss mitigation application is pending).
Many Hawaii mortgages have a provision that requires the lender to send a notice, commonly called a "breach letter," informing you that the loan is in default before the lender can accelerate the loan. The breach letter allows you to cure the default and avoid foreclosure.
Under federal law, the servicer usually can't officially begin a foreclosure until you're more than 120 days past due on payments, subject to a few exceptions. (12 C.F.R. § 1024.41).
This 120-day period provides most homeowners ample opportunity to submit a loss mitigation application to the servicer.
In the past, most foreclosures in Hawaii were nonjudicial. However, some lenders have switched to judicial foreclosures to bypass Hawaii's Mortgage Foreclosure Dispute Resolution (MFDR) Program. In this program, the owner-occupant meets with the lender or its representative to attempt to work out a way to prevent foreclosure. (Haw. Rev. Stat. § 667-71 and following). Lenders routinely file judicial foreclosures in Hawaii to avoid having to participate in this kind of dispute resolution.
Also, homeowners of residential real estate facing a nonjudicial foreclosure generally have the option to convert to the judicial process. But you can't convert if you elected to participate in the MFDR program. (Haw. Rev. Stat. § 667-53).
To determine whether you should consider converting your foreclosure and learn about your options, consult an attorney familiar with the Hawaii foreclosure process. Converting a nonjudicial foreclosure to a judicial one might be a good idea, particularly if you have a strong defense to the foreclosure. Or it might be in your best interests to stick with the nonjudicial process and participate in the MFDR program.
You can also get details about how the nonjudicial foreclosure process works in Hawaii from a local foreclosure attorney.
A judicial foreclosure begins when the lender files a lawsuit asking a court for an order allowing a foreclosure sale. The lender gives notice of the suit by serving you a summons and complaint. (Haw. Rev. Stat. § 667-1.5). If you don't respond to the suit, the lender will ask the court for, and probably receive, a default judgment, allowing it to hold a foreclosure sale.
But if you choose to defend the foreclosure lawsuit, the case will go through the litigation process. The lender might then ask the court to grant summary judgment. A summary judgment motion asks that the court grant judgment in favor of the lender because there's no dispute about the critical aspects of the case.
If the court grants summary judgment for the lender—or you lose at trial—the judge will enter a judgment and order your home sold. A notice of the sale must appear in a newspaper for three weeks, and the lender has to publish it on a state website at the discretion of the agency that maintains the site. (Haw. Rev. Stat. § 667-20).
At the sale, the lender usually makes a credit bid. The lender can bid up to the total amount owed, including fees and costs, or it may bid less.
In some states, including Hawaii, when the lender is the high bidder at the sale but bids less than the total debt, it can get a deficiency judgment against the borrower. If the lender is the highest bidder, the property becomes "Real Estate Owned" (REO).
But if a bidder, say a third party, is the highest bidder and offers more than you owe, and the sale results in excess proceeds—that is, money over and above what's needed to pay off all the liens on your property—you're entitled to that surplus money.
A few potential ways to stop a foreclosure include reinstating the loan, redeeming the property before the sale, or filing for bankruptcy. Of course, if you can work out a loss mitigation option, like a loan modification, that will also stop a foreclosure.
Hawaii law doesn't give the borrower the right to reinstate the loan in a judicial foreclosure. But your loan paperwork might allow for reinstatement. Check your mortgage to see if you get the right to complete a reinstatement and the deadline to do so.
If not, the lender might agree to let you reinstate your loan.
One way to stop a foreclosure is by "redeeming" the property. To redeem, you have to pay off the full amount of the loan before the foreclosure sale.
Some states also provide foreclosed borrowers with a redemption period after the foreclosure sale, during which they can buy back the home. Hawaii law, however, doesn't provide a post-sale right of redemption.
If you're facing a foreclosure, filing for bankruptcy might help. In fact, if a foreclosure sale is scheduled to occur in the next day or so, the best way to stop the sale immediately is by filing for bankruptcy.
Once you file for bankruptcy, something called an "automatic stay" goes into effect. The stay functions as an injunction prohibiting the lender from foreclosing on your home or trying to collect its debt, at least temporarily.
In many cases, filing for Chapter 7 bankruptcy can delay the foreclosure by a matter of months. Or, if you want to save your home, filing for Chapter 13 bankruptcy might be the answer. To find out about the options available, speak with a local bankruptcy attorney.
In a foreclosure, the borrower's total mortgage debt sometimes exceeds the foreclosure sale price. The difference between the total debt and the sale price is called a "deficiency."
For example, say the total debt owed is $700,000, but the home sells for $650,000 at the foreclosure sale. The deficiency is $50,000. In some states, the lender can seek a personal judgment against the debtor to recover the deficiency. Generally, once the lender gets a deficiency judgment, the lender may collect this amount—in our example, $50,000—from the borrower.
In a judicial foreclosure, the foreclosing lender can get a deficiency judgment.
In this article, you'll find details on foreclosure laws in Hawaii, with citations to statutes so you can learn more. Statutes change, so checking them is always a good idea.
If you're looking for federal laws, you might want to visit the Library of Congress's legal research website, which provides links to federal regulations and federal statutes.
To find Hawaii's laws, search online for "Hawaii statutes" or "Hawaii laws." Make sure you're reading the most recent, official laws. Usually, the URL will end in ".gov" or the statutes will be on an official state legislature webpage.
For more information on federal mortgage servicing laws, as well as foreclosure relief options, go to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) website.
Although the programs under the Making Home Affordable (MHA) initiative have expired, the MHA website still contains useful information for homeowners facing foreclosure.
How courts and agencies interpret and apply laws can change. And some rules can even vary within a state. These are just some of the reasons to consider consulting a lawyer if you're facing a foreclosure.
If you have questions about Hawaii's foreclosure process or want to learn about potential defenses to a foreclosure and possibly fight the foreclosure in court, consider talking to a foreclosure attorney.
It's also a good idea to talk to a HUD-approved housing counselor if you want to learn about different loss mitigation options. You can use the CFPB's Find a Counselor tool to get a list of HUD-approved housing counseling agencies in your area. You can also call the Homeownership Preservation Foundation (HOPE) Hotline, which is open 24 hours a day, seven days a week, at 888-995-HOPE (4673).