If you default on your mortgage payments, the lender (or the subsequent loan owner) will likely foreclose. In most states, a foreclosure ends with a public auction where the property is sold to a new owner.
When a foreclosure sale results in excess proceeds—money over and above what's needed to pay off all the liens on the property—this surplus money belongs to you (the homeowner), not the lender.
Depending on state law and the circumstances, a foreclosure is either judicial or nonjudicial. Judicial foreclosures go through state court, while nonjudicial foreclosures happen without court oversight.
At the end of the foreclosure process, a trustee or an officer of the court, like the sheriff, will typically conduct a foreclosure sale. (In two states, Connecticut and Vermont, a judge who approves a foreclosure can give the home's title directly to the lender.)
Sometimes, a property sells at a foreclosure sale for a price that's more than what the borrower owes on the mortgage loan. In other cases, the property sells for less than the borrower's total debt.
If the purchase price at the foreclosure sale exceeds the borrower's loan balance, this extra amount is called "excess proceeds" or "surplus funds."
After a foreclosure, any surplus funds get distributed to lienholders and the former homeowner.
While state procedures for handling and distributing surplus funds vary considerably, here's what generally happens to excess money after a foreclosure and how to claim any foreclosure overages.
Again, if a foreclosure sale results in excess proceeds, the lender doesn't get to keep that money. The lender is entitled to an amount sufficient to pay off the outstanding balance of the loan plus the costs associated with the foreclosure and sale—but no more. So, you might get some money if your house is foreclosed, particularly if you didn't have any other liens on your home.
On the other hand, if your property is foreclosed and sells for less than you owed on the mortgage, the unpaid portion of the loan is called a "deficiency." Depending on state law and the situation, the lender might be able to get a deficiency judgment against you for this amount.
Generally, if any junior liens were on the home, like a second mortgage or HELOC, or a creditor that recorded a judgment lien against the property, those parties get the first crack at the surplus funds. Then, any excess proceeds left over after paying off these liens belong to the former homeowner.
However, a junior lienholder could lose its rights to the excess proceeds if it doesn't respond to judicial foreclosure proceedings or follow the correct procedures for claiming the surplus. Also, you (the foreclosed homeowner) have to make a claim to get your share of surplus funds from a foreclosure.
You'll need to act quickly to claim surplus funds after a foreclosure. A limited amount of time will be available for you to get the funds. The exact amount of time you'll get depends on state procedures.
You can apply to either the foreclosure trustee or the court to get the foreclosure excess proceeds.
Again, the procedures for distributing and claiming surplus funds after a foreclosure sale differ from state to state. And claiming surplus funds is sometimes a complicated process that can be confusing for homeowners, especially after the stress of going through a foreclosure.
Talk to a lawyer if you need help getting the excess money after a foreclosure. Foreclosure lawyers often handle surplus funds claims, ensuring that foreclosed homeowners recover the money they're entitled to after a foreclosure.
Usually, unclaimed surplus funds go to the state's unclaimed property division. You might still be able to access the funds if you find yourself in this situation.
Typically, if a foreclosure sale has surplus funds, the trustee or other sale officer has to send a notice to the foreclosed homeowner's last known address. But the last known address is usually the foreclosed property.
Because most people don't realize they're due any excess proceeds, they tend to vacate a foreclosed propertywithout leaving a forwarding address. So, they might not receive important notices about the distribution of foreclosure proceeds.
Because you don't know whether a foreclosure sale will generate surplus funds, it's a good idea to track the foreclosure process as it goes along. Take note of the foreclosure sale date, which will be in the foreclosure documents you receive.
After the auction, contact the trustee or officer that sold the property. This information, including the trustee or officer's name and phone number, should also be in the paperwork you received during the foreclosure and in your local newspaper's legal section where the sale notice was published. Call your loan servicer if you can't figure out who conducted the sale or how to contact that person.
Then, ask the trustee or officer if the auction resulted in excess proceeds.
If the sale had surplus funds, give the trustee or officer your new address. And follow up with a letter, sent by certified mail, return receipt requested, and regular mail, including your new address and contact information.
Also, when you call the trustee or sale officer, ask what you need to do to claim your share of the proceeds.
Beware if you get a letter from an out-of-state company saying it will help you claim any surplus funds after you go through a foreclosure. These letters are typically from for-profit companies or individuals with no legal training. But they'll claim they can locate excess proceeds and distribute them to you for a fee. These companies tend to be predatory and aren't affiliated with the court, trustee, or your lender.
Consult with a foreclosure lawyer if you need help recovering surplus funds after a foreclosure. If you can't afford to hire a lawyer, you might qualify for free assistance from a local legal aid office.