Federal and state laws heavily regulate loan servicing and foreclosure processes. And most of the laws give protections to borrowers. Servicers generally have to provide borrowers with loss mitigation opportunities, account for each foreclosure step, and strictly comply with foreclosure laws.
Also, most people who take out a loan to buy a residential property in New York sign a promissory note and mortgage. These documents give homeowners some contractual rights in addition to federal and state legal protections.
In a New York foreclosure, you'll most likely get the right to:
So, don't get caught off guard if you're a New York homeowner who's behind in mortgage payments. Learn about each step in a New York foreclosure, from missing your first payment to a foreclosure sale.
Once you understand the process, you can make the most of your situation and, hopefully, work out a way to save your home or at least get through the process with as little anxiety as possible.
The period after you fall behind in payments, but before a foreclosure officially starts, is generally called the "preforeclosure" stage. (Sometimes, people refer to the period before a foreclosure sale actually happens as "preforeclosure," too.)
During this time, the servicer can charge you various fees, like late charges and inspection fees, and, in most cases, must inform you about ways to avoid foreclosure and send you a preforeclosure notice called a "breach letter."
If you miss a payment, most loans include a grace period of, say, ten or fifteen days, after which time the servicer will assess a late fee. Each month you miss a payment, the servicer will charge this fee. To find out the late charge amount and grace period for your loan, look at the promissory note you signed. You can also find this information on your monthly mortgage statement.
Also, many New York mortgages allow the lender (or the current loan holder, referred to as the "lender" in this article) to take necessary steps to protect its interest in the property. Property inspections are performed to ensure that the home is occupied and appropriately maintained. Inspections, which are generally drive-by, are usually ordered automatically once the loan goes into default and typically cost around $10 or $15.
Other types of fees the servicer might charge include those for broker's price opinions, which are like appraisals, and property preservation costs, such as for yard maintenance or winterizing an abandoned home.
Under federal mortgage servicing laws, if the property is your principal residence, the servicer must contact, or attempt to contact, you by phone to discuss loss mitigation options, like a loan modification, forbearance, or repayment plan, no later than 36 days after you miss a payment and again within 36 days after each following delinquency.
No later than 45 days after missing a payment, the servicer has to inform you in writing about loss mitigation options that might be available and appoint personnel to help you try to work out a way to avoid foreclosure.
A few exceptions are in place for some of these requirements, though, like if you've filed for bankruptcy or asked the servicer not to contact you pursuant to the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act. (12 C.F.R. § 1024.30, 12 C.F.R. § 1024.39, 12 C.F.R. § 1024.40).
Federal mortgage servicing laws also prohibit dual tracking (pursuing a foreclosure while a complete loss mitigation application is pending).
Many New York mortgages have a provision that requires the lender to send a notice, commonly called a "breach letter," informing you that the loan is in default before the lender can accelerate the loan. The breach letter gives you a chance to cure the default and avoid foreclosure.
Under federal law, the servicer usually can't officially begin a foreclosure until you're more than 120 days past due on payments, subject to a few exceptions. (12 C.F.R. § 1024.41). This 120-day period provides most homeowners with ample opportunity to submit a loss mitigation application to the servicer.
If you default on your mortgage payments for your home in New York, the foreclosure will be judicial.
If the property is an owner-occupied, one-to-four-family dwelling, or a condominium unit, New York law requires the lender or servicer to send a notice to the borrower 90 days before starting the foreclosure that provides, among other things:
If the lender or servicer started the foreclosure, but didn't send the 90-day notice when required by law or didn't strictly comply with notice requirements, you could have a powerful defense that might result in a dismissal of the foreclosure action.
A judicial foreclosure begins when the lender files a lawsuit asking a court for an order allowing a foreclosure sale. The lender gives notice of the suit by serving you a summons and complaint, along with information about the foreclosure process. (N.Y. Real Prop. Acts. Law § 1303, § 1320).
You generally get 20 days to file an answer (if the complaint and summons were served in person) or 30 days (if service was by mail or another way). If you don't respond to the suit, the lender will ask the court for, and probably receive, a default judgment, which will allow it to hold a foreclosure sale.
But if you choose to defend the foreclosure lawsuit, the case will go through the litigation process. The lender might then ask the court to grant summary judgment. A summary judgment motion asks that the court grant judgment in favor of the lender because there's no dispute about the critical aspects of the case.
If the court grants summary judgment for the lender—or you lose at trial—the judge will enter a judgment and order your home sold at auction.
For foreclosure actions involving borrower-occupied properties, New York law requires the court to hold a mandatory settlement conference within 60 days of the filing of the proof of service with the court clerk.
At the settlement conference, the lender and homeowner attempt to reach a mutually agreeable way to avoid foreclosure. The court will send a notice to the parties advising them of the time and place of the settlement conference, and the documents that they should bring to the meeting. (N.Y. Civil Practice Rule 3408).
A sale date is then set, published in a newspaper, and posted publicly in some cases. (N.Y. Real Prop. Acts. Law § 231).
At the sale, the lender usually makes a credit bid. The lender can bid up to the total amount owed, including fees and costs, or it may bid less.
In some states, including New York, when the lender is the high bidder at the sale but bids less than the total debt, it can get a deficiency judgment against the borrower. If the lender is the highest bidder, the property becomes what's called "Real Estate Owned" (REO).
But if a bidder, say a third party, is the highest bidder and offers more than you owe, and the sale results in excess proceeds—that is, money over and above what's needed to pay off all the liens on your property—you're entitled to that surplus money.
A few potential ways to stop a foreclosure include reinstating the loan, redeeming the property before the sale, or filing for bankruptcy. (Of course, if you're able to work out a loss mitigation option, like a loan modification, that will also stop a foreclosure.)
New York law provides that the homeowner may reinstate the loan at any time prior to final judgment. The homeowner can also pay the arrearage after judgment, but before the sale, and the proceedings will be stayed (postponed). If the homeowner subsequently defaults, then the court can order enforcement of the judgment. (N.Y. Real Prop. Acts. Law § 1341).
One way to stop a foreclosure is by "redeeming" the property. To redeem, you must pay off the loan's full amount before the foreclosure sale.
Some states also provide foreclosed borrowers with a redemption period after the foreclosure sale, during which they can buy back the home. New York law, however, doesn't provide a redemption period for foreclosed homeowners after the sale.
If you're facing a foreclosure, filing for bankruptcy might help. In fact, if a foreclosure sale is scheduled to occur in the next day or so, the best way to stop the sale immediately is by filing for bankruptcy. Once you file for bankruptcy, something called an "automatic stay" goes into effect. The stay functions as an injunction that prohibits the lender from foreclosing on your home or otherwise trying to collect its debt, at least temporarily.
In many cases, filing for Chapter 7 bankruptcy can delay the foreclosure by a matter of months. Or, if you want to save your home, filing for Chapter 13 bankruptcy might be the answer. To find out about the options available to you, speak with a local bankruptcy attorney.
In a foreclosure, the borrower's total mortgage debt sometimes exceeds the foreclosure sale price. The difference between the total debt and the sale price is called a "deficiency." For example, say the total debt owed is $600,000, but the home sells for $550,000 at the foreclosure sale. The deficiency is $50,000.
In some states, the lender can seek a personal judgment against the debtor to recover the deficiency. Generally, once the lender gets a deficiency judgment, the lender may collect this amount—in our example, $50,000—from the borrower.
In New York, a deficiency judgment is allowed if a homeowner is personally served or appears in the lawsuit. The amount of the deficiency is the amount of the debt less the higher of:
To get the deficiency judgment, the lender must make a motion with the court within 90 days of the consummation of the sale. (The sale is consummated when the deed is delivered to the purchaser.) (N.Y. Real Prop. Acts. Law § 1371).
In New York, the "Foreclosure Abuse Prevention Act" (S5473) significantly limited the circumstances under which the statute of limitations for a mortgage foreclosure case may be reset or extended.
Under this law, a lender's voluntary discontinuance of an action to foreclose a mortgage doesn't stop the six-year statute of limitations period from running. So, in most cases, a lender is time-barred from foreclosing a mortgage after six years from the first date it accelerates the loan, even if the lender later dismisses the foreclosure lawsuit.
The law took effect on December 30, 2022, and also applies retroactively to any pending foreclosure action filed before that date, for which a final judgment and order of sale had not been enforced.
In this article, you'll find details on foreclosure laws in New York, with citations to statutes so you can learn more. Statutes change, so checking them is always a good idea.
To find New York's laws, search online for "New York statutes" or "New York laws." Make sure you're reading the most recent, official laws. Usually, the URL will end in ".gov" or the statutes will be on an official state legislature webpage.
For more information on federal mortgage servicing laws, as well as foreclosure relief options, go to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) website.
Although the programs under the Making Home Affordable (MHA) initiative have expired, the MHA website still contains useful information for homeowners facing foreclosure.
How courts and agencies interpret and apply laws can change. And some rules can even vary within a state. These are just some of the reasons to consider consulting a lawyer if you're facing a foreclosure. If you have questions about New York's foreclosure process or want to learn about potential defenses to a foreclosure and possibly fight the foreclosure in court, consider talking to a foreclosure attorney.
It's also a good idea to talk to a HUD-approved housing counselor if you want to learn about different loss mitigation options. You can use the CFPB's Find a Counselor tool to get a list of HUD-approved housing counseling agencies in your area. You can also call the Homeownership Preservation Foundation (HOPE) Hotline, which is open 24 hours a day, seven days a week, at 888-995-HOPE (4673).