In response to the foreclosure crisis of the late 2000s, when loan servicing errors were common and egregious, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), the Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (FRB) required certain mortgage servicers to hire independent consultants to review foreclosures that were initiated, pending, or completed during 2009 or 2010.
The "Independent Foreclosure Review," which began in 2011, allowed eligible borrowers to request a review of a foreclosure on a primary residence that was in progress at any time in 2009 or 2010 if they believed they suffered a financial injury due to servicing errors. Banks were also required to review a certain amount of all loans in foreclosure during the relevant period. The reviews were intended to pinpoint wrongdoing by servicers in individual foreclosure cases and then appropriately compensate harmed borrowers.
The Independent Foreclosure Review was supposed to last only a few months, but the reviews turned out to be far more complex and time-consuming than expected. The banks ended up paying more than $2 billion to the consultants, but the reviews weren't close to being completed. So, regulators announced that they were essentially shutting down the reviews and replacing the program with a settlement to offer relief to borrowers sooner.
In January 2013, thirteen servicers and federal bank regulators reached an agreement that ended the Independent Foreclosure Review for those servicers participating in the settlement. The participating servicers were Aurora, Bank of America, Citibank, Goldman Sachs, HSBC, JPMorgan Chase, Morgan Stanley, MetLife Bank, PNC, Sovereign, SunTrust, U.S. Bank, and Wells Fargo and their affiliates. EverBank, Ally/GMAC, and OneWest continued with the reviews.
In the summer of 2013, EverBank and Ally/GMAC settled as well. OneWest (mortgages serviced by Financial Freedom and IndyMac Mortgage Services) completed its reviews in early 2014 and began to provide remediation for those homeowners who suffered errors resulting in financial harm.
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The terms of the settlement with the original 13 settling servicers included an estimated $3.6 billion in direct cash compensation to nearly 4.2 million eligible borrowers and $5.7 billion in additional mortgage assistance, such as loan modifications and forgiveness of deficiency judgments. EverBank agreed to provide about $37 million in cash payments to more than 32,000 mortgage borrowers and $6.3 million to housing assistance groups. Ally/GMAC agreed to pay $230 million in direct cash payments to borrowers.
Homeowners who were in some stage of the foreclosure process at any time in 2009 or 2010 and had their loan handled by one of the settling servicers were supposed to receive a payment under the settlement, regardless of whether they were wronged. Those who requested a foreclosure review received a higher payment.
The settlement checks ranged from $300 to $125,000, with most borrowers receiving a few hundred dollars. (For EverBank, the payout range was $1,050 to $125,000, plus equity in some cases.) Only around 1,000 households received $125,000. These top payouts went to military servicemembers who lost their homes even though they were eligible for protection under federal law, as well as to those homeowners who were current on payments but lost their homes nonetheless.
To determine payment amounts, borrowers were categorized based on the stage of their foreclosure process—completed, rescinded, or in progress—and the type of possible servicer error. Regulators then used a financial remediation matrix published in June 2012 as a guide and incorporated input from various consumer groups to determine the payment amount.
Payment information can be found at www.federalreserve.gov/consumerinfo/independent-foreclosure-review-payment-agreement.htm.
As of October 10, 2014, OneWest completed its mailings, sending out over 20,000 payments totaling over $11 million.
While all of the settlement payments—and remediation payments in the case have OneWest—have been previously distributed, the OCC announced in early 2015 that the payment administrator was reissuing around 600,000 checks that were not cashed or were returned as undeliverable.
As of January 2017, the payment portion of the settlement was concluded. Three years had passed since initial checks were mailed to borrowers and, during that time, at least two and often three attempts were made to reach all eligible borrowers. In January 2018, the Federal Reserve Board announced the termination of enforcement actions against most of the banking organizations involved.
Many people took issue with the fact that the settlement essentially let banks off the hook for errors in foreclosures because no final accounting of how many borrowers were actually harmed took place. Also, borrowers who received compensation checks in the mail complained that they should have been placed in categories that provided larger payments.
For more information, go to the Federal Reserve's website.