For individuals, there are two main kinds of bankruptcy:
Things may not be as bad as you think. You may be "judgment proof" or you may have options you aren't aware of. See Alternatives to Bankruptcy.
You may be prevented from filing for Chapter 7 bankruptcy if you have enough income to repay your debts in a Chapter 13 plan. (To learn more, see our Chapter 7 Eligibility & Means Test area.) Or you may not qualify for Chapter 13 bankruptcy if your debts are too high or your income too low. (See Are You Eligible for Chapter 13 Bankruptcy? )
Some debts, like child support obligations, cannot be wiped out in bankruptcy. Learn more in What Bankruptcy Can and Cannot Do.
Bankruptcy won't relieve you of your obligation to pay your mortgage, but it might make your mortgage easier to pay by getting rid of other debts. If you have substantial equity in your home, you might lose it if you file for Chapter 7, depending on how generous the exemptions laws are that are available to you. If you file for Chapter 13, you can keep your home and pay off any mortgage arrears through your repayment plan. (To learn more, see Your Home and Mortgage in Chapter 13 Bankruptcy and Your Home in Chapter 7 Bankruptcy.
How much property you get to keep depends whether you've pledged the property as collateral for a debt, and on the "exemption" laws that are available in your state. If you file for Chapter 7, you might lose your car if you have substantial equity that isn't protected by your state's exemption laws. (To learn more, see our Bankruptcy Exemptions area.)
Bankruptcy is good at wiping out most credit card debt and unsecured loans, unless you spent extravagantly or lied on your credit application. See Credit Card Debt in Chapter 7 Bankruptcy for more information.
In most states, you will not lose pensions,retirement accounts, or life insurance in bankruptcy. If you have a pension, a 401(k), an IRA, or life insurance, find out what's protected in your state. (To learn more, see Your Retirement Plan in Bankruptcy.)
If a friend or relative helped you get financing by cosigning a loan agreement, Chapter 13 bankruptcy will protect your cosigner, but Chapter 7 will stick them with any debt you don't pay. (To learn more, see Will Your Cosigner Be Liable for Debt if You File for Bankruptcy?)
Bankruptcy can be intrusive -- you have to disclose every last detail of your finances to the court, and other people may find out about your bankruptcy. In a Chapter 7 bankruptcy, you can have property taken away, or, under a Chapter 13 plan, you might spend three to five years having to ask permission to spend your own money.
Bankruptcy will also have a detrimental effect on your credit score. See our FAQ on Bankruptcy and your Credit for more information.