Of the millions of Americans who struggle to pay their federal student loans, many want to know: Can I reduce or eliminate my student loan debt? In very limited circumstances, it's possible to get rid of student loan debt. But most people won't be able to wipe out some or all of their loans.
The good news, though, is that some people are eligible to reduce monthly payments, get a temporary break from payments, or take advantage of other ways to better manage their student loan payments.
Below is an overview of your options if you're struggling to pay your student loans.
If your income is low or unstable, or you have very high student loan debt compared to your income, you might be eligible for one of the below plans.
If you have a federal Direct Loan, you can opt for this plan which calculates your payment amount based on your income. Under this plan, your monthly payment is the lesser of
If you haven't paid off your loan after 25 years, the government will forgive the remaining balance.
In this plan, which is only available for certain types of loans (subsidized and unsubsidized Federal Stafford Loans, FFEL PLUS Loans, and FFEL Consolidation Loans), your payments are based on your annual income, family size, and total loan amount.
You can get an IBR plan for:
This plan requires payments equal to 10% of your discretionary income if you're a new borrower on or after July 1, 2014 (but never more than the ten-year standard repayment plan amount) or 15% of your discretionary income if you're not a new borrower on or after July 1, 2014 (again, never more than the ten-year standard repayment plan amount).
If you haven't paid off your loan after 20 years (new borrowers on or after July 1, 2014) or 25 years (if you're not a new borrower on or after July 1, 2014), the government will forgive the remaining balance.
Under this plan, your monthly payments are 10% of your discretionary income, but never more than the ten-year standard repayment plan amount. (Under a standard repayment plan, the payments are a fixed amount.)
The following types of loans are eligible for this repayment plan:
If you haven't repaid your loan in full after 20 years, the rest is forgiven.
Much like PAYE, under this plan, your monthly payments are 10% of your discretionary income. Your outstanding balance is forgiven if you haven't repaid the loan in full after 20 or 25 years. The following types of loans are eligible for REPAYE:
Other types of repayment plans include a standard repayment plan, a graduated repayment plan, and an extended repayment plan.
A Direct Consolidation Loan allows you to combine one or more of your federal student loans into a single loan with one monthly payment. This kind of loan can be helpful if you want to reduce your interest rate, you don't qualify for another payment plan program, you qualify for another payment program but still can't afford the payments, or you want to get out of default.
A deferment excuses you from making student loan payments for a set amount of time because of a specific condition in your life—such as returning to school, economic hardship, or unemployment. Interest won't accrue on subsidized loans during the deferment period.
With loan forbearance, your loan holder gives you permission to stop making payments for a set amount of time or permits you to temporarily make reduced payments. Common reasons supporting a forbearance include poor health, unforeseen personal problems, your inability to pay the loan within ten years (or other loan term period), or monthly loan payments that are more than 20% of your income.
In some situations, you can get rid of your student loans altogether, which is referred to as student loan "forgiveness," "cancellation," or "discharge." You must meet very specific criteria. Sometimes, you can cancel part of the loan, but not the entire loan.
The circumstances in which you might be able to cancel your student loan include:
It's very difficult to discharge student loans in bankruptcy. You must demonstrate that it would be an undue hardship for you to pay them, and courts are reluctant to find that debtors have met this standard. If you file for Chapter 13 bankruptcy, however, you might be able to pay all or part of your student loans through your Chapter 13 plan.
To learn more about options for federal student loans, visit the U.S. Department of Education's Federal Student Aid website. You can also call your loan servicer. If you have a Federal Perkins Loan, contact your school.
To get assistance in dealing with your servicer or to get help understanding the different repayment, deferment, forbearance, and forgiveness options for federal student loans, consider consulting with a student loan attorney or debt negotiation attorney who deals with student loans.