In Utah, if you go through foreclosure and the sale price is not enough to cover the balance of your mortgage, the foreclosing lender can come after you for the "deficiency." Read on to learn what a deficiency judgment is, when your mortgage lender can collect one against you in Utah, and what happens to the deficiency in a short sale or a deed in lieu of foreclosure in Utah.
(For more articles on foreclosure in Utah, visit our Utah Foreclosure Law Center.)
When a lender forecloses on a mortgage, the total debt owed by the borrowers to the lender frequently exceeds the foreclosure sale price. The difference between the sale price and the total debt is called a deficiency.
Example. Say the total debt owed is $200,000, but the home only sells for $150,000 at the foreclosure sale. The deficiency is $50,000.
In some states, the lender can seek a personal judgment against the debtor to recover the deficiency. Generally, once the lender gets a deficiency judgment, the lender may collect this amount (in our example, $50,000) from the borrowers by doing such things as garnishing the borrowers’ wages or levying the borrowers’ bank account. (Learn about methods that creditors can use to collect judgments.)
(To learn more about deficiency judgments in the foreclosure context, see our Deficiency Judgments After Foreclosure area.)
The majority of foreclosures in Utah are nonjudicial, which means the lender does not have to go through state court to get one. However, sometimes foreclosures in Utah are judicial and go through the state court system. (To learn more about the difference between judicial and nonjudicial foreclosure, and the procedures for each, see Will Your Foreclosure Take Place In or Out of Court?)
Learn more about the Utah foreclosure process.
Deficiency judgments are allowed in Utah. The lender may obtain a deficiency judgment following a nonjudicial foreclosure if it files a lawsuit within three months of the foreclosure sale.
The amount of the deficiency judgment will be limited to the lesser of:
In a judicial foreclosure, the deficiency judgment may be entered as part of that action (Utah Code Ann. § 78B-6-902).
Generally, when a senior lienholder forecloses, any junior liens (these would include second mortgages and HELOCs, among others) are also foreclosed and those junior lienholders lose their security interest in the real estate. If a junior lienholder has been sold-out in this manner, that junior lienholder can sue the borrower personally on the promissory note. This means that if the equity in your home doesn’t cover second and third mortgages, you may face lawsuits from those lenders to collect the balance of the loans.
Learn more in our article What Happens to Liens and Second Mortgages in Foreclosure?
A short sale is when you sell your home for less than the total debt balance remaining on your mortgage and the proceeds of the sale pay off a portion of the mortgage balance. (Learn more about short sales to avoid foreclosure.)
In Utah, a lender can get a deficiency judgment following a short sale. However, the suit must be brought no later than three months after the short sale. The three-month period begins with the recording date of the release of mortgage or reconveyance (release) of trust deed. This three-month time limit does not apply if there is a written agreement between the borrower and the lender in which the borrower agrees to pay the lender all or part of the deficiency (Utah Code Ann. § 78B-2-313).
To avoid a deficiency judgment altogether, the short sale agreement must expressly state that the lender waives its right to the deficiency. If the short sale agreement does not contain this waiver, the lender may file a lawsuit to obtain a deficiency judgment.
A deed in lieu of foreclosure occurs when a lender agrees to accept a deed to the property instead of foreclosing in order to obtain title. With a deed in lieu of foreclosure, the deficiency amount is the difference between the fair market value of the property and the total debt. (Learn more about deeds in lieu of foreclosure.)
In Utah, a lender can get a deficiency judgment following a deed in lieu of foreclosure. To avoid a deficiency judgment with a deed in lieu of foreclosure, the agreement must expressly state that the transaction is in full satisfaction of the debt. If the deed in lieu of foreclosure agreement does not contain this provision, the lender may file a lawsuit to obtain a deficiency judgment against you.
To find the Utah foreclosure statutes, go to the Utah Legislature’s webpage at http://le.utah.gov. Click on “Utah Code/Constitution” and then “Utah Code - by Title, Chapter, and Section.” The relevant statutes can be found in Title 57 and in Title 78B (Judicial Code).