People who own real property must pay property taxes. The government uses the money that these taxes generate to pay for schools, public services, libraries, roads, parks, and the like. Typically, the tax amount is based on a property's assessed value. If you have a mortgage on your home, the loan servicer might collect money from you as part of the monthly mortgage payment to later pay the property taxes. The servicer pays the taxes on your behalf through an escrow account. But if the taxes aren't collected and paid through this kind of account, you must pay them directly.
When homeowners don't pay their property taxes, the overdue amount becomes a lien on the property. A lien effectively makes the property act as collateral for the debt. All states have laws that allow the local government to sell a home through a tax sale process to collect delinquent taxes. Accordingly, if you get behind in paying your real property taxes in North Carolina, you might lose your home to tax foreclosure.
Fortunately, you'll find out about the tax foreclosure sale before it happens, and you'll have the chance to get current on the delinquent amounts, plus interest and costs, to prevent the loss of your home. If you let the foreclosure go through to a sale, you'll get a short amount of time afterward to reclaim the property by "redeeming" it (see below).
Once a real property tax bill becomes delinquent in North Carolina, the tax collector may foreclose its tax lien. The foreclosure process either goes through the court (the procedures are similar to a judicial foreclosure of a mortgage) or through a process called "in rem."
With this kind of tax foreclosure, the tax collector files a lawsuit against you (the homeowner) in court. When the tax collector files the foreclosure action with the court, you'll receive a summons and a copy of the complaint (the lawsuit). (N.C. Gen. Stat. § 105-374).
If you don't respond to the suit and provide a valid defense, like you aren't actually behind in your taxes, or pay the delinquent amounts to get current, the court will enter a judgment and order your home to be sold at a public auction. The sale proceeds pay off the delinquent taxes, costs, and fees. (N.C. Gen. Stat. § 105-374).
After your home is sold to satisfy the tax debt, the sale remains open through an upset-bid period. (After the foreclosure sale, another buyer can come in and buy the home by making a higher bid than was bid at the sale. This kind of bid is called an "upset bid.") The upset-bid period initially lasts for ten days after the commissioner files a report of the foreclosure sale. (N.C. Gen. Stat. § 105-374). If someone enters an upset bid during this time, the sale will stay open for another ten days. If someone enters a subsequent upset bid, another ten-day starts. Once ten days go by without an upset bid, the court will confirm the sale. Once the sale is confirmed, the purchaser gets a deed to the property after paying the purchase price. (N.C. Gen. Stat. § 105-374(p)).
Instead of filing a lawsuit, the tax collector can choose to use an alternative process called an "in rem" foreclosure. With an in rem foreclosure, the tax collector files a certificate with the court. This step is referred to as "docketing." (N.C. Gen. Stat. § 105-375). This step effectively creates a judgment against your home in the amount of the taxes, interest, and costs.
At least 30 days before docketing the judgment, the tax collector must send you a notice of the foreclosure by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested. If the tax collector does not receive a return receipt indicating that you got the notice within ten days, the collector must make reasonable efforts to locate and notify you by, for example:
At any time after three months after docketing, but no more than two years from the indexing of the judgment, the tax collector can file a request for execution with the court. The court then orders the sheriff to sell your home to satisfy the tax debt. (N.C. Gen. Stat. § 105-375).
The sheriff will then mail you a notice of sale by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, 30 days before the sale date. If the sheriff doesn't receive a return receipt within ten days, the collector must take steps to notify you, like by posting notice at the courthouse and publishing the notice in a newspaper. (N.C. Gen. Stat. § 105-375).
Again, the bidding is held open for ten days after the sale for the filing of an upset bid. Each upset bid starts a new ten-day upset bid period.
Many states give delinquent taxpayers the chance to pay off the amounts owed and keep the home, even after a tax sale happens. This process is called "redeeming" the property.
In many states, the homeowner can redeem the home after a tax sale by paying the buyer from the tax sale the amount paid (or by paying the taxes owed), plus interest, within a limited amount of time. Exactly how long the redemption period lasts varies from state to state, but usually, the homeowner gets at least a year from the sale to redeem the property. In other states, though, the redemption period happens before the sale.
Here are your basic redemption rights in a North Carolina tax foreclosure.
You may redeem the property—that is, pay off the delinquent taxes, plus various other amounts—before the court confirms the sale. (N.C. Gen. Stat. § 105-374).
You can stop the foreclosure by paying off the debt before the upset-bid period ends. (N.C. Gen. Stat. § 1-339.57). North Carolina law says that payment in full of the judgment together with interest and costs cancels the judgment. (N.C. Gen. Stat. § 105-375).
Or you might be able to get the court to set aside (invalidate) the judgment before the issuance of execution on the ground that the tax has been paid or that the tax lien on which the judgment is based is invalid. (N.C. Gen. Stat. § 105-375). If you want to ask the court to set aside the judgment, you'll most likely need a lawyer to help you file a motion with the court.
Property tax liens almost always have priority over other liens, including mortgage liens and deed of trust liens. (For purposes of this discussion, the terms "mortgage" and "deed of trust" are used interchangeably.) Because a property tax lien has priority, if your home is sold through a tax foreclosure, the sale wipes out any mortgages. So, the loan servicer will usually advance money to pay delinquent property taxes to prevent this from happening. The servicer will then demand reimbursement from you (the borrower).
The terms of most mortgage contracts require the borrower to stay current on the property taxes. If you don't reimburse the servicer for the tax amount it paid, you'll be in default under the terms of the mortgage, and the servicer can foreclose on the home in the same manner as if you had fallen behind in monthly payments.
After demanding repayment of the amount it paid for the taxes, penalties, plus interest (and assuming you repay this tax debt), your servicer will probably set up an escrow account for the loan. Each month, you'll have to pay approximately one-twelfth of the estimated annual cost of property taxes—and perhaps other expenses, like insurance—along with your usual monthly payment of principal and interest. This money goes into the escrow account. The loan servicer then pays the cost of the taxes and other escrow items on your behalf through the escrow account.
The downside to having an escrow account is that you'll have to make a bigger payment to the servicer each month. On the positive side, having an escrow account saves you from having to come up with a large amount of money when tax bills, and perhaps other bills, are due.
If you're having trouble paying your property taxes, you might be able to reduce your tax bill or get extra time to pay. If you're already facing a property tax foreclosure in North Carolina and have questions or need help redeeming your property, consider talking to a foreclosure lawyer, tax lawyer, or real estate lawyer.