I am from Albania and was granted asylum two years ago. My fiancé recently arrived in the United States — he walked across the border from Mexico. We married in city hall. Can I get status for my undocumented husband?
In some situations, it is possible to include a spouse in your asylum grant – though this does not appear to help in your situation, as we’ll describe. The law says that any spouse or child under 21 who is physically in the United States at the time of the asylum adjudication can be added to the asylum application as a dependent and will be granted asylum if the principal applicant is granted asylum.
However, in order to list your spouse as a dependent, the legal relationship must have existed before the grant of asylum. Since you married your fiancé only after you received asylum, and since your fiancé was not physically in the United States when you won your case, he cannot obtain asylee status from your claim.
As an asylee, you are allowed to apply for and obtain a green card one year after the grant of asylum. (That process in itself may take several months.) Once you receive your green card, you can file a petition for alien relative for your husband (See Nolo’s article, “Preparing an I-130 Visa Petition for the Immigrating Spouse of a U.S. Permanent Resident.”)
It is important to realize, though, that approval of your I-130 petition will not, by itself, get your husband his green card. To get a green card your husband would next have to wait until his Priority Date is current (which can take several years by itself), then file an application for permanent residence. (See Nolo’s articles discussing the “Application Process for a Green Card Based on Marriage.”
Since your husband is undocumented, however, it seems unlikely that he will be able to adjust his status within the United States. Only a few categories of people can use the adjustment of status procedure instead of applying for their green card using the procedure known as “consular processing,” which involves an interview at the U.S. embassy or consulate in the immigrant’s home country.
Importantly, people who have been in unlawful status in the U.S. for six or more months may, upon leaving the U.S. for any reason (including the required consular interview), be barred from reentering the United States for three or ten years. The amount of time a person is barred from reentering the U.S. depends on whether the unlawful stay was between six months and one year or greater than one year. For more information, see “Living in the U.S. and Married to a U.S. Permanent Resident: What are the Immigration Options?”
It is always a good idea to consult with an experienced immigration attorney to help figure out the best course of action.