The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (PTO), the federal agency that oversees the registration of federal trademarks, divides marks into 45 different "classes" of products or services. The purpose of these classes is to allow different types of businesses to register their trademarks into categories most related to their core business. Class 12 includes vehicles, devices, machines and apparatus for locomotion by land, air or water. This Class also includes motors and engines for land vehicles, as well as couplings, transmission components, and air cushion vehicles.
For a complete listing of all goods in Class 12, see below. For more information about trademarks and federal registration, see Nolo's articles on Trademark.
Examples of Trademarks in Class 12
ROYAL COACH (cars and vans), CRAZY CART (go-carts), and INTERLOCK (bicycle accessories) are all good examples of Class 12 marks.
You would not use Class 12 if you were registering:
Related or Coordinated Classes
If you are not sure whether you should register in Class 12, you might also consider the following "coordinated" classes: Class 7 - Machines, Class 35 - Advertising and Business Services, Class 37 - Construction and Repair Services, Class 42 - Science and Technology Services.
A coordinated class is one that is related to another class, usually because the PTO has determined that applicants filing within Class 12 often file in these other classes, too.
The registration fees that you pay to the PTO will partly depend on the class system. Trademark registration is based on a class system. For each class of goods or services that you register, you must pay a separate registration fee. So if you apply for a trademark for posters (Class 16) and shirts (Class 25), you must pay two fees.
You must indicate the correct class at the time you are registering a trademark. If you list the incorrect class, you must start the application process over.
Your registrations are restricted to those classes that encompass the goods or services you are already offering (as shown by the specimens you submit) or that you plan to offer (if you are registering on an intent-to-use basis). You may also need information about the class number in order to narrow a search of the PTO's trademark database.
Furnishing Specimens for Class 12
If the mark is used in commerce, you must furnish a specimen of the mark as consumers see it. The specimen must show the mark as used on or in connection with the goods in commerce. A trademark specimen should be a label, tag, or container for the goods, or a display associated with the goods. A photocopy or other reproduction of a specimen of the mark as actually used on or in connection with the goods is acceptable.
In most cases, where the trademark is applied to the goods or the containers for the goods in Class 12 by means of labels, a label is an acceptable specimen. Shipping or mailing labels may be accepted if they are affixed to the goods or to the containers for the goods and if proper trademark usage is shown. They are not acceptable if the mark as shown is merely used as a trade name and not as a trademark. An example of this is the use of the term solely as a return address.
Stamping a trademark on the goods, on the container, or on tags or labels attached to the goods or containers, is a proper method of trademark affixation. The trademark may be imprinted in the body of the goods, as with metal stamping; it may be applied by a rubber stamp; or it may be inked on by using a stencil or template. When a trademark is used in this manner, photographs or facsimiles showing the actual stamping or stenciling are acceptable as specimens.
The terminology "applied to the containers for the goods" means applied to any type of commercial packaging that is normal for the particular goods as they move in trade. Thus, a showing of the trademark on the normal commercial package for the particular Class 12 goods is an acceptable specimen. For example, gasoline pumps are normal containers or "packaging" for gasoline.
A specimen showing use of the trademark on a vehicle in which the goods are marketed to the relevant purchasers may constitute use of the mark on a container for the goods, if this is the normal mode of use of a mark for the particular goods.
Complete Listing of All Goods in Class 12 Based on Taxonomy
- Vehicles and conveyances, aerial conveyors, air cushion vehicles, cable transport apparatus and installations, cars for cable transport installations, chairlifts, electric vehicles, military vehicles for transport, ski lifts, telpher railways [cable cars]/cable cars, vehicles for locomotion by land, air, water or rail.
- Land vehicles and conveyances, ambulances, automobiles, bicycles/cycles, caissons [vehicles], camping cars/motor homes, caravans, carts, casting carriages/casting cars/ladle carriages/ladle cars, cleaning trolleys, concrete mixing vehicles, cycle cars, delivery tricycles/carrier tricycles, dining cars [carriages]/dinner wagons [carriages], golf carts, hose carts, kick sledges, lifting cars [lift cars]/fork lift trucks, lorries/trucks, mopeds, motor cars/cars, motor buses, motor coaches, motorcycles, omnibuses, pushchairs/baby carriages/prams [baby carriages]/strollers, refrigerated vehicles, remote control vehicles, other than toys, scooters [vehicles], shopping trolleys [carts (Am.)], sleighs [vehicles], snowmobiles, sports cars, sprinkling trucks, tilting-carts, tractors, trailers [vehicles], tricycles, trolleys*/hand cars, two-wheeled trolleys/luggage trucks/sack-barrows, vans [vehicles], waggons, wheelbarrows.
- Human-powered trolleys and carts, handling carts, tilt trucks.
- Mobility conveyances, wheelchairs, Rail vehicles, carriages [railways], dining cars, funiculars, locomotives, sleeping cars, tramcars, refrigerated waggons [railroad vehicles]/refrigerated wagons [railroad vehicles].
- Air and space vehicles, aeronautical apparatus, machines and appliances, aeroplanes, air balloons, air vehicles, aircraft, amphibious airplanes, dirigible balloons [airships]/airships/dirigible balloons, parachutes, seaplanes, space vehicles.
- water vehicles, barges, boats, dredgers [boats], ferry boats, hydroplanes, launches, pontoons, sculls/stern oars, ships, water vehicles, yachts.
- Parts and fittings for vehicles, anti-dazzle devices for vehicles*/anti-glare devices for vehicles*, axle journals, axles for vehicles, bands for wheel hubs, bodies for vehicles, brake shoes for vehicles, brake linings for vehicles, brake segments for vehicles, brake discs for vehicles, brakes for vehicles, caps for vehicle petrol [gas] tanks, connecting rods for land vehicles, other than parts of motors and engines, covers for baby carriages/fitted perambulator covers/pushchair covers/stroller covers [pushchairs], covers for vehicle steering wheels, doors for vehicles, head-rests for vehicle seats, headlight wipers, hydraulic circuits for vehicles, luggage nets for vehicles, pushchair hoods/hoods for baby carriages, seat covers for vehicles, shock absorbing springs for vehicles, sleeping berths for vehicles, spoilers for vehicles, steering wheels for vehicles, sun-blinds adapted for automobiles, suspension shock absorbers for vehicles, tailboard lifts [parts of land vehicles]/elevating tailgates (Am.) [parts of land vehicles]/power tailgates (Am.) [parts of land vehicles]/elevating tailgates, power tailgates (Am.) [parts of land vehicles], torsion bars for vehicles, turbines for land vehicles, undercarriages for vehicles, upholstery for vehicles, vehicle chassis, vehicle covers [shaped], vehicle bumpers, vehicle seats, vehicle suspension springs, windows for vehicles.
- wheels, tyres and continuous tracks, air pumps [vehicle accessories], anti-skid chains, automobile tires [tyres], balance weights for vehicle wheels, bicycle tires [tyres]/cycle tires [tyres]/tires for bicycles, cycles/tyres for bicycles, cycles, casings for pneumatic tires [tyres], casters for trolleys [vehicles] [carts (Am.)], flanges for railway wheel tires [tyres]/flanges of railway wheel tires [tyres]/flanges of railway wheel tires/flanges of railway wheel tyres, freewheels for land vehicles, hub caps, hubs for vehicle wheels/vehicle wheel hubs, inner tubes for pneumatic tires [tyres], inner tubes for bicycles, cycles, mine cart wheels, non-skid devices for vehicle tires [tyres]/non-skid devices for vehicle tires/non-skid devices for vehicle tyres, adhesive rubber patches for repairing inner tubes, pneumatic tires [tyres]/tires, solid, for vehicle wheels/tyres, solid, for vehicle wheels, pumps for bicycles, cycles/bicycle pumps/cycle pumps, repair outfits for inner tubes, rims for vehicle wheels/vehicle wheel rims, rims for wheels of bicycles, cycles/bicycle rims/cycle rims, spare wheel covers/spare tire covers/spare tyre covers, spikes for tires [tyres]/studs for tires [tyres], spoke clips for wheels, spokes for bicycles, cycles/bicycle spokes/cycle spokes, treads for vehicles [tractor type]/treads for vehicles [roller belts], treads for retreading tires [tyres], tubeless tires [tyres] for bicycles, cycles, tyres for vehicle wheels/tires for vehicle wheels, valves for vehicle tires [tyres], vehicle wheels, vehicle wheel tires [tyres], vehicle wheel spokes, wheels for bicycles, cycles.
- Anti-theft, security and safety devices and equipment for vehicles, air bags [safety devices for automobiles], anti-theft devices for vehicles, anti-theft alarms for vehicles, ejector seats for aircraft, horns for vehicles, reversing alarms for vehicles, safety belts for vehicle seats, safety seats for children, for vehicles, security harness for vehicle seats.
- Parts and fittings for air and space vehicles.
- Parts and fittings for water vehicles, boat hooks, cleats [nautical], davits for boats, disengaging gear for boats, fenders for ships, funnels for ships, inclined ways for boats, masts for boats, oars, paddles for canoes, portholes, rowlocks/oarlocks, rudders, screw-propellers, screw-propellers for boats, screws [propellers] for ships, ships' hulls, spars for ships, steering gears for ships/ships' steering gears, timbers [frames] for ships.
- Parts and fittings for land vehicles, automobile chassis, automobile bodies, automobile hoods, automobile chains, baskets adapted for cycles, bells for bicycles, cycles/bicycle bells/cycle bells/audible warning systems for cycles, bicycle stands/stands for bicycles, cycles [parts of bicycles, cycles], bicycle saddles/cycle saddles, bogies for railway cars, brake pads for automobiles, brakes for bicycles, cycles/bicycle brakes/cycle brakes, buffers for railway rolling stock, bumpers for automobiles, chains for bicycles, cycles/bicycle chains/cycle chains, cigar lighters for automobiles, clutches for land vehicles, couplings for land vehicles, crankcases for land vehicle components, other than for engines, cranks for cycles, cycle stands, cycle mudguards, cycle hubs, direction signals for vehicles/turn signals for vehicles, direction indicators for bicycles, dress guards for bicycles, cycles, driving chains for land vehicles, frames for bicycles, cycles/bicycle frames/cycle frames, funnels for locomotives, gear boxes for land vehicles, gearing for land vehicles, gears for cycles, handle bars for bicycles, cycles/bicycle handle bars/cycle handle bars, hoods for vehicles, hoods for vehicle engines, luggage carriers for vehicles, mudguards, panniers adapted for cycles, pedals for cycles, railway couplings, rearview mirrors, reduction gears for land vehicles, rolling stock for funicular railways, rolling stock for railways, saddle covers for bicycles or motorcycles, saddlebags adapted for bicycles, saddles for bicycles, cycles or motorcycles, shock absorbers for automobiles, side cars, ski carriers for cars, tipping bodies for lorries [trucks], tipping apparatus, parts of trucks and waggons, torque converters for land vehicles, trailer hitches for vehicles, transmission chains for land vehicles, transmission shafts for land vehicles, transmissions, for land vehicles, vehicle running boards, windscreens/windshields, windshield wipers/windscreen wipers.
- Powertrains, including engines and motors, for land vehicles, driving motors for land vehicles, engines for land vehicles/motors for land vehicles, jet engines for land vehicles, motors for cycles, motors, electric, for land vehicles, propulsion mechanisms for land vehicles, traction engines.