The possibility of a car crash exists every time a driver gets behind the wheel, so it's important to understand the risks before heading out on the road.
We all want to be safer drivers—to avoid crashes, hold insurance rates in check, and keep ourselves and others free from injury. By learning about the common types of car accidents, what causes them, and how to avoid them, you can make your next driving trip a safer one.
All types of traffic collisions have the potential to cause injury or death. A 2020 National Safety Council (NSC) study found that most motor vehicle accident-related injuries and fatalities are caused by crashes with other cars, with single-car crashes coming in second.
Let's look at the seven most common types of car accidents (though not presented here in order of frequency), and liability issues unique to each.
Rear-end collisions make up the majority of traffic accidents. A National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) study found that about 29% of crashes resulting in serious injury were from rear-end collisions. In 2020 alone, rear-end accidents resulted in 2,428 deaths, amounting to 6.8% of all traffic fatalities that year according to the Insurance Information Institute (III).
Liability is often simplest with a rear-end accident. The tailing driver is typically presumed liable. Most of these accidents occur because of distracted driving or failure to keep a safe following distance. Failure to properly maintain brakes can also cause or contribute to a rear-end crash.
Many rear-end accidents occur at lower speeds, because the tailing driver usually at least tries to stop their vehicle prior to impact. But if speeding or reckless driving is involved, the collision impact can be severe.
Head-on collisions can be devastating. Many involve a wrong-way driver on a one-way street or highway exit ramp. Head-on accidents can also occur when a driver crosses into another lane or over a median.
Head-on crashes were responsible for 3,631 deaths in 2020, or 10.2% of total fatal crashes that year. It's no surprise that fault normally lies with the driver who crossed a median or drove in the wrong direction.
Accidents where a car brushes against another vehicle are called sideswipes. They can involve lane drift, especially when two vehicles meet and pass on a narrow road, or failure to check blind spots before changing lanes or merging.
Sideswipe accidents are often minor, but serious injuries can result, especially when a motorcycle is involved.
Side-impact accidents occur most often at intersections, when a driver runs a stop light or stop sign, or fails to observe the proper right of way. Unlike a sideswipe, a side-impact collision involves the front end of one vehicle hitting the side of another.
"T-bone" crashes, where one vehicle strikes another at a 90-degree angle at or close to the driver or passenger doors, are dangerous because most vehicles have little reinforcement in those areas.
T-bone crashes are often high-speed collisions resulting in concussions, broken bones, and even death. These collisions make up 35.4% of traffic accidents but cause nearly 50% of traffic fatalities, according to the NSC.
Technically, any two-car crash is a "multi-vehicle" accident, but in insurance-speak, this term typically describes a collision involving three or more vehicles. This category includes chain reaction collisions, where one car hits another (usually from behind), causing a "chain" of collisions behind the original crash.
You may hear these accidents reported on the news as "multi-car pile ups," often occurring on freeways in bad weather, when speed and poor visibility combine. One mistake can lead to multiple collisions, compounding property damage and injuries.
Any vehicle can roll over, but the wheelbase, weight, and height combination of SUVs, pickups, and vans make them more prone to these kinds of accidents. Rollover risk increases in wet or icy conditions, or when a driver takes a turn too quickly. Rollovers can also occur after a side-impact collision, or after a vehicle leaves the roadway.
Statistics from 2020 reveal that 7,182 drivers and passengers died in rollover accidents, according to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). In most of these fatal accidents, a front impact collision preceded the rollover.
Single-vehicle crashes often involve collisions with a fixed object like a fence, tree, or telephone pole. While inattention and other driver errors are often behind single vehicle accidents, bad weather and driver efforts to avoid animals (or other road hazards) can also play a part.
A single-car accident can also be the result of a driver hitting a stationary object or being forced to leave the roadway in order to avoid a head-on collision. In these cases, liability could be pinned on the driver who drifted into oncoming traffic.
Now that you're aware of some common types of car accidents, you might be wondering what causes them. The NHTSA divides the causes of car accidents into three categories: driver error, vehicle malfunction, and environmental conditions.
Vehicle-related issues cause 2% of traffic accidents, according to the NHTSA. Many of these incidents are tire- or wheel-related (35%), with brakes (22%) also playing a big part. Mechanical problems with steering, suspension, and engines can also cause or contribute to an accident.
While some vehicle issues relate to manufacturing defects, they're most often linked to improper maintenance or the vehicle owner's failure to respond to a recall notice.
Environmental causes of accidents include weather, road conditions, and traffic signal or sign failures. In 50% of these accidents, ice and road debris are the cause, the NHTSA says. Glare (17%) takes second place on this list.
Most car accidents are avoidable—at least on your end. But you can't control the decisions and actions of others. So, always wear your seatbelt, and take the following steps to reduce the chance of a car crash.
Receiving a recall notice doesn't mean your car is low quality. Most often the manufacturer found a defect and would rather avoid future problems (including liability). It can be easy to ignore recall notices, especially if the issue seems minor, but it's important to get in the habit of following the manufacturer's instructions.
Follow your vehicle manufacturer's recommended maintenance schedule. Get your brakes, tires, and other key safety equipment inspected regularly. Take your vehicle to a qualified mechanic at the first sign of a problem. You face liability for any accident that might be linked to your failure to properly maintain or repair your car.
The prevalence of electronic devices is a big reason why the NHTSA focuses so much on distracted driving. It recommends:
If you plan to go out drinking, take a taxi, rideshare service, or public transportation—or designate a non-drinking driver. The same goes for driving after smoking pot in states where recreational marijuana use has been decriminalized.
Speed remains a big contributor to traffic injuries and death, especially combined with inclement weather or poor road conditions.
If it's a wet or icy day—slow down. If you see potholes or road debris, slow down. Road construction? Again, slow down. By giving yourself plenty of time to reach a destination, you'll be less likely to place yourself and others at risk.
Don't tailgate other drivers, even if slow driving annoys you. If they brake suddenly, you're more likely to hit them if you're following too close.
Be aware of your environment, including road conditions and potential hazards. Keep a safe following distance if traffic is stop-and-go. Check blind spots before you merge or change lanes, and never pass on a two-lane road with a solid line.
Drive defensively, following the rules of the road. And make sure you're not too tired to be behind the wheel. (More safe-driving tips for all motorists can be found at KidsHealth.org.)
If you've been involved in any of the types of car accidents we've discussed here, it might make sense to discuss your situation with an experienced legal professional, especially if you've suffered significant injuries.
If your claim is straightforward and you're confident you can fight for a fair result, handling your own car accident case might make sense. But any time the insurance company is pushing back on key issues like fault for the crash or the legitimacy of your injuries, there's no substitute for having a lawyer on your side.
Learn more about how an attorney can help with your car accident claim. If you're ready to reach out now, you can use the features right on this page to connect with a car accident lawyer in your area.