Research solidly supports claims that noise is a health hazard, not just a nuisance. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, exposure to certain everyday sounds at close range, such as lawnmowers and motorcycles, can cause hearing damage. A noisy restaurant checks in at 80 decibels, a subway train at 120, live rock music at 130. Ongoing exposure to noise nuisances can also cause stress, anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances. Noise affects the ability to concentrate and learn. Schoolchildren exposed to excessive noise—for example, in schools close to airports or elevated trains—have been found to develop problems with reading and memory.
Neighbors who create excessive noise can be especially problematic. You can't easily escape or shut out the noise, and because you have to see these people on a regular basis, you might not want to rock the boat too much. Here's some advice on how to address noisy neighbors.
There are two common reactions to noise coming from a neighbor. The first is resignation. You hate the noise, but you do nothing. The second is anger. You lose your temper and call the cops. An ideal response is probably somewhere in the middle. Consider taking the following steps.
Raising a problem directly with a neighbor is not easy, but it should always be the first step and, if done with respect and sensitivity, might resolve the matter. Often the neighbor is unaware of a problem—for instance, the dog barks only when nobody is home. Assume that the neighbor doesn't know and would like to be told what's happening. A face-to-face conversation can feel intimidating, but will likely yield the best results. Or, as a second-best possibility, you could deliver a handwritten note (make sure you sign it—anonymous notes tend to anger the recipient) or send an email.
If tackling the problem head-on doesn't work, get a copy of your local noise ordinance. Email it to your neighbor (if you have an email address) or send a copy with a note repeating your request to keep the noise down and explaining that you'll be forced to notify the authorities if you don't get results. Be sure to provide details on the problem, including the dates, times, and a description of the noise.
If you rent or live in a planned development, send a copy of the lease, rental agreement, or other document that addresses noise to the neighbor. In a planned development, noise concerns and limits are typically addressed in the community's Covenants, Conditions, and Restrictions. If reminding the neighbor of the rules doesn't work, report the problem to the landlord or homeowners' association in writing. Landlords and homeowners' association boards usually take written complaints seriously. If you can get other neighbors to sign on to your complaint, the landlord or board will probably order the problem neighbor to quiet down or face fines or eviction.
If you value the neighbor relationship at all, or just want peace in the future, consider mediation. You and the neighbor can sit down together with an impartial mediator and resolve your problems in a way that you can both agree on.
Mediation services are available in most cities and are often free or low-cost. Simply call your local mediation center, and it will then contact the neighbor for you. For more information, see the Mediation, Arbitration, and Collaborative Law section of Nolo's website.
Still no response from the neighbor? Stereo turned up another notch? Now is the time to bring in the police (or, if the problem is a barking dog, the Animal Control Department). If you've exhausted every possibility of solving the problem on your own, the police will know your complaint is serious and that you need help.
Try to notify the police while the noise is occurring, so they can measure the decibels or hear it for themselves. (Some people simply hold the phone out the window.) Sometimes cities won't act until the noise affects two or more persons, to prevent overreacting to complaints from excessively sensitive people.
As a last resort, you might be able to sue in small claims court. It's easy and inexpensive, and you don't need a lawyer, as we'll discuss next.
If your neighbor keeps disturbing you, you can sue, and ask the court for money damages or to order the neighbor to stop the noise ("abate the nuisance," in legal terms). For money damages alone, you can use the small claims court option. For a court order telling somebody to stop doing something (an order or "injunction"), you'll probably have to sue in regular court.
Of course, what you really want is for the nuisance to stop. But getting a small claims court to order a neighbor to pay you money can be amazingly effective. It won't necessarily yield a payment (enforcing small claims court judgments can be a problem), but it might bring the noise levels down!
To win, you'll need to show:
To prove your case, you'll need to gather evidence of the noise and your efforts to end it, such as copies of your notes and/or emails to your neighbor, police reports, written complaints, witness testimony, your testimony, or recordings of the noise.
How much money should you sue for? In most states, small claims courts limit judgments to between $2,500 and $20,000. (Find out how much you can sue for in your state's small claims court.) Requesting $20 a day for your trouble would probably be considered reasonable. If the noise problem is really severe—keeping you from sleeping or working and making you completely frazzled—ask for $100 a day.
You can learn more in the Small Claims Court area of Nolo's website.
You can ask for a landlord's help in quieting the neighbor. Standard rental and lease agreements contain a clause entitled "Quiet Enjoyment." This clause gives tenants the right to occupy their rental in peace—and imposes upon them the responsibility not to disturb their neighbors. It's the landlord's job to enforce both sides of this bargain.
If, for example, the neighbor's stereo is keeping you up every night, the tenant is probably violating the rental agreement and could be evicted. Especially if several neighbors complain, the landlord will probably order the tenant to comply with the lease or face eviction.
Usually, problems with barking dogs can be resolved without resorting to police or courts. If you do wind up in court, however, a judge will be more sympathetic if you first made at least some effort to work things out informally. Here are the steps to take when you're losing patience (or sleep) over a neighbor's noisy dog:
Sometimes owners are blissfully unaware that there's a problem. If the dog barks for hours every day—but only when it's left alone—the owner might not know that you're being driven crazy.
If you can establish some rapport with the neighbor, try to agree on specific actions to alleviate the problem. For example, make an agreement that your neighbor will take the dog to obedience school or consult with an animal behavior specialist, or that the dog will be kept inside after 10 p.m. After you agree on a plan, set a date to talk again in a couple of weeks. You might want to follow up in writing—perhaps via email—with the details of the arrangement, so you know you're on the same page.
See discussion above about how mediators can help resolve a neighbor dispute.
In some places, barking dogs are covered by a specific state or local ordinance. If there's no law aimed specifically at dogs, a general nuisance or noise ordinance makes the owner responsible. And someone who allows a dog to bark after numerous warnings from police may be arrested for disturbing the peace.
If you can't find the relevant law online, call the local animal control agency or city attorney.
Be persistent. Some cities have special programs to handle dog complaints.
Police aren't normally interested in barking dog problems. And summoning a police cruiser to a neighbor's house obviously will not improve your already strained relations. But if nothing else works, and the relationship with your neighbor is shot anyway, you could give the police a try.
Almost every community prohibits excessive, unnecessary, and unreasonable noise, and police enforce these laws. To find your municipality's noise rules, look up the local ordinances, either online, at your local public library or the city or county law library (usually located near the courthouse), or by calling the office of the city attorney, mayor, or city manager.
Most local noise ordinances designate "quiet hours"—for example, from 10 p.m. to 7 a.m. on weekdays and until 8 or 9 a.m. on weekends. So, running a power mower might be permitted at 10 a.m. on Saturday, but not at 7 a.m.
Some universally disturbing sounds are commonly banned or restricted. For instance, most cities prohibit honking car horns unless there is danger. This means that the daily early morning tooting across the street for the carpool is a violation. Dog barking and motorcycle noise are two other commonly regulated noises.
Many towns also prohibit sustained noise that exceeds a certain decibel level. The decibel limits are set according to the time of day and the neighborhood zoning. When a neighbor complains, police place decibel level monitoring equipment at a certain distance and take a reading.
Fortunately, most communities have local noise ordinances that prohibit excessive, unnecessary, and unreasonable noise. Look for your local noise ordinance, searching in particular for:
Most noise laws designate certain "quiet" times. Some types of noise might be allowed at some times, but not at others. Your neighbor's drumming might be allowed at 10 a.m., but not at 7 a.m. or midnight. After you find out your community's quiet times, keep a log for a week or so of when the drumming occurs. It might seem like the beat goes on (and on) 24-7, but the drumming might not even be occurring during set quiet times.
Many communities prohibit sustained noise that exceeds a certain decibel level for residential areas. To see how loud the drumming is, you'll need a decibel level machine (they're usually around $50). Keep notes of noise measurements in your log, along with the time of day you hear the drumming (the noise limit will probably vary depending on time of day). Or ask the police to take noise measurements. (Most communities have electronic equipment for measuring noise when a neighbor complains.)
If the drumming noise is below the noise limits, and only occurs within reasonable hours, you probably won't have the law behind you. If however, the drumming exceeds the limits, especially if it occurs outside of designated quiet times, you have some leverage with your neighbor.
In either case, talk with your neighbor (noise ordinance and drumming log in hand). Be sensitive (now is not the time to criticize the neighbor's drumming skills). Attempt to work out a compromise. You'll have more clout if the drumming is also bothering other neighbors—otherwise, you might come off as overly picky. It's possible that your neighbor is not even aware that the drumming is bothering you. Consider options such as mediation if a conversation with your neighbor doesn't work.
If the neighborhood drummer is clearly violating the local noise ordinance, call the police or local code enforcement if you can't work out a reasonable agreement. The police might issue a warning, then later potentially fine the drumming neighbor if the warning is ignored.
Even the best rental properties can be noisy at times, with tenants coming and going, doing home repairs, moving furniture, playing music, having loud conversations, or walking across hardwood floors. If a neighbor's noise is continuously disruptive, however, you'll want to find the best way to remedy the situation as soon as possible. Excessive noise, whether from loud parties, blaring radios, or dogs barking day and night, violate other tenants' right to peace and quiet. The following suggestions and tips can help you get a peaceful home (and a good night's sleep).
In person, explain that the noise levels are disturbing you, and politely ask your fellow tenants to keep it down. In some cases, a congenial smile and request is all it takes. They might not even realize how loud they are being. Remember, acting in a threatening or belittling manner can exacerbate the situation.
Keep a log, with as much detail as possible, of the times and dates of noise you are hearing. Consider recording the noise, and, if it's really bad, buy a decibel level machine to measure it.
If the noise continues after your initial request, write the noisy tenants a letter that outlines the problem and what you feel would be an amicable solution. Your note doesn't need to be demanding or too formal, but a simple plan that you feel will be effective. For example, if you go to sleep at 11 p.m., explain that a loud radio or television is keeping you awake, but lowering it a few notches will help tremendously. Writing a letter that you're serious about the noise disturbances will give you proof if you need to complain to your landlord or end up in court.
Other people in your building might have the same complaints as you do. Getting them to sign onto a joint letter to the landlord can be especially helpful in motivating the landlord to stop the noise.
Most standard leases have a clause that give tenants the right to "quiet enjoyment," which generally includes freedom from excessive or continually disruptive noise that interferes with a tenant's ability to use the rental—for example, by making it impossible to sleep. Look for a clause that's called something like "violating laws or causing disturbances." Your landlord might also spell out specific noise guidelines (such as "no loud noise after midnight") in a separate set of rules.
It's your landlord's responsibility to enforce lease clauses and house rules; if a noisy tenant doesn't comply, landlords can evict them. And if your landlord fails to stop excessive and unreasonable noise, you might want to consider filing a small claims lawsuit against the landlord for tolerating a nuisance. Depending on the situation, you might be able to break your lease and move out early.
After doing a bit of research (most likely online), provide your landlord with a copy of the ordinance, so as to back up your request that the landlord take steps to make sure that the noisy tenants cease the problem behavior.
If the landlord fails to stop noisy tenants, the next step is to contact law enforcement authorities. It's a good idea to call the police while the noise is in progress, such as a during a late-night party.