If you are a U.S. citizen or permanent resident who is marrying someone from Japan, and you would like to sponsor your Japanese husband or wife for a U.S. green card (lawful permanent residence), you will find some important legal and practical guidance below.
This is a general overview of how the U.S. immigration process works for most people. Your situation may present complications or qualify for exceptions; see an experienced attorney for a full analysis.
ALSO: Owing to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, U.S. consulates around the world are canceling or limiting visa appointments to emergency ones, and most offices of U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) in the U.S. are closed for visits and interviews. Travel is also ill-advised at this time. The below describes how the process normally works; expect changes and delays.
Let's start with a bit of background on U.S. immigration law. Marriage to a U.S. citizen or lawful permanent resident gives foreign-born persons a direct path to U.S. immigration. Contrary to popular rumor, however, the foreign national does not immediately or automatically receive the right to immigrate, nor U.S. citizenship.
If you are a U.S. citizen and already married or soon to be, your new spouse becomes your "immediate relative" in the language of U.S. immigration law. He or she may receive a green card as soon as the two of you successfully complete the application process; which can take several months.
If you have not yet married and your fiancé is still living in Japan, you can, if you are a U.S. citizen, petition for your fiancé(e) to enter the U.S. on a K-1 visa in order to get married. Your new spouse could then apply for a green card, if desired.
You can also choose to get married first in Japan or in another country, and then apply for an immigrant visa with which to enter the United States. This visa is the equivalent of a green card. The actual card will arrive some weeks after your then-spouse's entry to the United States.
If you are a lawful permanent resident, your new spouse becomes a "preference relative," in category F2A. That means your Japanese spouse can obtain permanent residence in the U.S. only after a "visa number" (space for another permanent resident) has become available. At that time, he or she can apply for an immigrant visa (and enter the United States). Because of annual limits on the number of people who can get permanent residence in category F2A, a waiting list has developed, based on one's "priority date." The wait often takes around two years.
U.S. permanent residents cannot petition for fiancés.
The application process for a marriage- based green card involves multiple steps, most notably submitting forms and documents and attending an interview with U.S. immigration authorities. The purpose is to prove to U.S. immigration authorities that:
You and your Japanese fiancé or spouse may, however, have more than one option as to where and exactly how to apply, as described below.
If you and your intended spouse (who lives outside the U.S.) have not yet married--or have held an informal ceremony that does not count as an official marriage in the location where it was held--you can apply for a K-1 visa, which is a temporary (90-day) visa with which your fiancé can enter the U.S. in order to hold the wedding.
The U.S. citizen starts this process by filing a visa petition on Form I-129F with U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). After USCIS approves the I-129F, it will transfer the case to the National Visa Center in New Hampshire, which eventually will send the case to the U.S. consulate in either Tokyo or Naha, Japan. Your fiancé will apply for a K-1 visa through the consulate. This involves submitting forms and documents and attending an interview with a consular official. You, the petitioner, are allowed to attend this interview, though it is not required.
After your marriage in the U.S., your new spouse applies to USCIS for a green card, through a process called adjustment of status. The two of you will attend a green card interview at a local USCIS office.
If you and your loved one are already married, and your spouse is currently in Japan, you would start the green-card application process by filing Form I-130 with USCIS. Its purpose is to prove you're really married, that it's a bona fide marriage (not a sham to get a green card) and that you're really a U.S. citizen or permanent resident. (See Preparing an I-130 Visa Petition for the Immigrating Spouse of U.S. Citizen or Preparing an I-130 Visa Petition for the Immigrating Spouse of a U.S. Permanent Resident.)
After USCIS approves the I-130, spouses of U.S. citizens can move forward with visa processing.
Spouses of permanent residents can obtain permanent residence in the U.S. only after space for a permanent resident in category F2A becomes available based on your spouse's "priority date." The good news is that by the time you receive approval of the I-130, some, if not all, of the wait time will have passed.
Next, your spouse will go through consular processing for an immigrant visa. This means your spouse submits paperwork to, and attends an interview at, a U.S. consulate in Tokyo, Japan. (The U.S. petitioner may attend, but is not required to.)
Upon approval, your spouse enters the U.S. on an immigrant visa, at which time he or she becomes a lawful permanent resident. Assuming you've paid the immigrant fee to USCIS, the green card arrives in the mail several weeks later.
Although the U.S. has various consulates and "American Centers" in Japan, only the one in Tokyo handles immigrant and fiancé visas. You will be given instructions (and eventually, an appointment notice) when your case is transferred to the consulate in Japan, and can also check the embassy's website for information.
If your spouse happens to be living in a country other than Japan, the consulate there would likely be the one to handle the case.
If your spouse came to the U.S. legally (such as on a fiancé or student visa or as a tourist), he or she may be eligible to apply to adjust status in the United States. The main form for this is USCIS Form I-485. The two of you will attend an interview at one of USCIS's field offices.
Information about USCIS locations or service centers can be found at its website, www.uscis.gov. (Just make sure your spouse didn't commit visa fraud by using the nonimmigrant visa specifically to enter the U.S. and apply for a green card--see Risks of Entering the U.S. as a Tourist, Then Applying for Marriage- Based Green Card for details.)
If you're a U.S. citizen, it doesn't matter if your spouse is in legal status in the U.S. when you apply to adjust status. But if you're a permanent resident, your spouse must be in legal status.
There is one other major consideration for spouses of permanent residents wishing to adjust status: before you can apply, you must reach the front of the waiting list we mentioned earlier. Unfortunately, the government might not tell you when your wait is over—you'll have to figure it out yourself. USCIS has a web page that explains how.
If your spouse entered the U.S. without inspection or by using a fake visa, or has ever been deported from the U.S., your situation is more complicated than this article can address. You may have difficulty obtaining a green card for your spouse, though it is not impossible. See an immigration attorney for details or if you have any questions about whether you qualify to adjust status.
No matter where you marry, you will need to obtain a certificate that convinces the U.S. immigration authorities that it was legally recognized in the state or country where it took place. Below are some tips on doing that.
If you have married, or plan to get married in your fiancé or spouse's home country, you will first need to look into Japan's requirements for legal marriage.
According to information provided by the U.S. consulate, the only "legal" Japanese marriages are civil marriage registrations, which take place a Japanese municipal government office. Japanese religious ceremonies are not sufficient for U.S. immigration purposes.
You, the U.S. half of the couple, must be at least 18 years old if you're a male and at least 16 if you're female (but older if that would be the requirement in your home state). Your Japanese fiancé must be at least 18 as well. And if either of you is below the age of 20, you'll need parental approval for the marriage.
After a divorce or dissolution of a previous marriage, women in Japan must wait at least six months to marry again. (This has to do with establishing the identity of the father in the event of pregnancy.)
If you and your fiancé are related by blood, adoption, or other marriages, you may not be allowed to marry under Japanese law.
As the U.S. citizen, you must prepare the following (with a certified translation into Japanese of any documents from the U.S., done by either the Japanese embassy in the U.S. or a Japanese notary public).
Obtaining a valid certificate of your marriage is critical for purposes of U.S. immigration. The U.S. government keeps track of what documents are considered legally valid from each country, Japan included, and will reject yours if it doesn't come from the proper source.
Check the State Department's Country Reciprocity Schedule to get further details on what documents from Japan it considers valid.
If you will hold your wedding in the U.S., you need to follow the laws of the state where you marry. You will need to obtain a marriage certificate from a local government office. A church certificate, for example, is not enough.