Filing for Bankruptcy in Michigan

In most respects, filing for bankruptcy in Michigan isn’t any different than filing in another state. The Michigan bankruptcy process falls under federal law.

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Facing financial challenges is a part of life. But if you're one of the millions struggling financially due to COVID-19 or another event, bankruptcy can help. Here, you'll find:

  • an explanation about Chapters 7 and 13
  • checklists to help you understand the process and stay organized
  • Michigan's property exemption laws and filing information, and
  • links to our bankruptcy quiz, an online qualifying tool, and other helpful resources.

However, we couldn't squeeze everything into this article, so be sure to check out its companion What You Need to Know to File for Bankruptcy—you'll find lots more details there.

How Bankruptcy Works in Michigan

In most respects, filing for bankruptcy in Michigan isn't any different than filing in another state. The bankruptcy process falls under federal law, not Michigan state law, and it works by unwinding the contracts between you and your creditors—that's what gives you a fresh start.

But Michigan's laws come into play, too, in a significant way. They determine the property you can keep in your bankruptcy case. You'll also need to know other filing information, which we explain after going over some basics.

Choosing the Right Bankruptcy Chapter For You in Michigan

Most people file either Chapter 7 or Chapter 13. If you don't know the differences between the two, you're not alone. The short explanation below and our handy Chapter 7 versus 13 chart will help clear things up.

Chapter 7 bankruptcy. Chapter 7 is often a bankruptcy filer's first choice for several reasons. It's quick—it only takes a few months to complete. And it's cheap—you don't pay anything to creditors. It works well for those of us whose property consists of the essential items needed to live and work.

People with more assets could lose them, however, especially if they own unnecessary luxury items. For instance, you might have to give up your RV, baseball card collection, or timeshare in the Bahamas—even your house or vehicle if you have too much equity in it or you're behind on the payments. Unlike Chapter 13, Chapter 7 doesn't have a payment plan option for catching up on late mortgage or car payments. So you could lose your home or car if you're behind when you file.

Chapter 13 bankruptcy. By contrast, Chapter 13 filers must pay creditors some or all of what they owe using a three- to five-year repayment plan. But the payment plan allows Chapter 13 to offer benefits not available in Chapter 7. For instance, not only do you keep all of your property, but you can save your home from foreclosure or your car from repossession. If you need time to repay a debt you can't discharge in bankruptcy, you can use this chapter to force a creditor into a payment plan. The biggest downside to this chapter? It can be expensive. Many people can't afford the monthly payment. Learn more about when filing Chapter 13 is better than Chapter 7.

Caution for businesspeople. Be sure to learn about the ins and outs of small business bankruptcies. The principles discussed apply to consumers only.

Will Filing Bankruptcy in Michigan Erase My Debts?

Bankruptcy wipes out many bills, like credit card balances, overdue utility payments, medical bills, personal loans, and more. You can even get rid of a mortgage or car payment if you're willing to give up the house or car that secures the debt. (Putting property up as collateral creates a "secured debt"—if you don't pay what you owe, the lender gets to take the property back.)

But you can't discharge all debts. Nondischargeable debts, like domestic support arrearages and recent tax debt, won't go away in bankruptcy, and student loans aren't easy to wipe out (you'd have to win a separate lawsuit). You'll want to be sure that bankruptcy will discharge (get rid of) enough bills to make it worth your while.

Steps in a Michigan Bankruptcy

We all know that seeing the forest helps us recognize the trees, so it's probably a good time to consider the significant steps you'll take during your bankruptcy journey. Think of this checklist as a roadmap of sorts, but you can also use it to track your progress. The good news? You've already made headway on the first two items!

Bankruptcy Steps Checklist

Keeping Property When Filing Bankruptcy in Michigan

You won't lose everything in bankruptcy. You'll use your state bankruptcy exemption laws to protect your property. We list the significant exemptions below, but first, understanding the following will help you maximize what you'll keep in your case.

  • Exempt and nonexempt property. You can keep property protected by an exemption or "exempt" property. When a bankruptcy exemption doesn't cover the property, you'll either lose it in Chapter 7 or have to pay for it in the Chapter 13 repayment plan.
  • Choosing state or federal exemptions. You can choose whether you use the state exemption list or the list of federal bankruptcy exemptions, but you can't mix and match exemptions from both sets. Filers who use state exemptions can also use the federal nonbankruptcy exemptions.
  • Doubling exemptions. Spouses filing together can double some but not all exemption amounts if both own the property. Spouses cannot double the homestead exemption.
  • COVID-19 recovery rebate exemption. You might be able to protect stimulus payments, tax credits, and child credits in bankruptcy with the federal recovery rebate exemption.
  • Retirement accounts all filers can protect. You can keep your tax-exempt retirement accounts, including 401(K)s, 403(b)s, profit-sharing and money purchase plans, SEP and SIMPLE IRAs, and defined benefit plans and traditional and Roth IRAs to $1,362,800 per person (as of June 2021). (11 U.S.C. 522(b)(3)(C); (n).) Learn more about retirement accounts in bankruptcy.

Michigan's Bankruptcy Exemption List

Here are some commonly-used Michigan bankruptcy exemptions.

Michigan Homestead Exemption

You'll be able to protect up to $40,475 in equity in your residence. If you are over 65 or disabled, the limit increases to $60,725. Spouses filing together cannot double these amounts. (Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 600.5451(1)(m).)

The surviving spouse of the owner can claim the homestead exemption. Debtors who hold property in tenancy by entirety can protect equity against individual debts but not joint debts (talk to an attorney about this protection). (Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 600.5451(1)(n),(o).)

Learn more about qualifying for the Michigan homestead exemption in bankruptcy.

Michigan Motor Vehicle Exemption

Filers can protect up to $3,725 of equity in a motor vehicle. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.5451(1)(g).) Find out how the motor vehicle exemption works in a Chapter 7 case.

Michigan Pension and Retirement Account Exemptions

Most pension and retirement accounts are completely protected. Most individual retirement accounts and annuities, as well as ERISA-qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans, are fully protected except for amounts contributed within the 120 days before filing for bankruptcy. (Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 600.5451(1)(j)(k).)

Here are some specific protections:

  • Firefighter and police officer benefits. (Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 38.559, 38.1683.)
  • Legislative member retirement benefits. (Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 38.1057, 38.1683.)
  • Public school employee retirement benefits. (Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 38.1346, 38.1683.)
  • State police retirement benefits. (Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 38.1346, 38.1683.)
  • State employees' retirement benefits. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 38.1683.)
  • Judges' retirement benefits. (Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 38.2308, 38.1683.)

Michigan Personal Property Exemptions

  • Burial grounds. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 128.112.)
  • Milk or cream sales proceeds. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.4031.)
  • Wages up to 60% of earned but unpaid wages for the head of household or $15 per week plus $2 per week for each dependent other than the spouse; others can protect up to 40% or $10 per week. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.5311.)
  • Family pictures. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.5451(1)(a)(i).)
  • Arms and accouterments required to be kept by law. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.5451(1)(a)(ii).)
  • Clothing other than furs. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.5451(1)(a)(iii).)
  • Family cemetery lot, tombs, and burial rights. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.5451(1)(a)(iv).)
  • Professionally prescribed health aids. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.5451(1)(a)(v).)
  • Six-month supply of provisions and fuel. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.5451(1)(b).)
  • Household goods such as furniture, utensils, books, appliances, and jewelry valued at up to $4,050 total. ($625 per item limit) (Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.5451(1)(c).)
  • Seat, pew, or slip to $700. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.5451(1)(d).)
  • Farm animals, feed, and crops to $2,700. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.5451(1)(e).)
  • Household pets to $700. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.5451(1)(f).)
  • Computer and accessories to $700. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.5451(1)(h).)
  • Tools, implements, materials, and other items necessary to carry on your profession, trade, occupation, or business to $2,700. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.5451(1)(i)).

Michigan Public Benefit Exemptions

  • Crime victims' compensation. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 18.362.)
  • Veterans' benefits. (Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 35.977, 35.1027.)
  • Welfare benefits. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 400.63.)
  • Worker's compensation benefits. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 418.821.)
  • Unemployment compensation. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 421.30.)

Michigan Insurance Exemptions

  • Fraternal benefit society benefits. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 500.8181.)
  • Insurance benefits fully protected regardless of the amount. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 500.2207.)
  • Insurance benefits paid on behalf of an employer. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 500.2210.)
  • Insurance benefits paid by any stock, mutual life, health, or casualty insurance. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.5451(1)(j).)

    Additional exemptions exist and amounts adjust periodically. The Michigan exemption statutes can be found at the Michigan Legislature website. Check for updates with the Michigan Department of Treasury in the Economic Reports section.

    Preventing Bankruptcy Exemption Problems

    Exempt your property carefully. The bankruptcy trustee—the court-appointed official assigned to manage your case—will review the exemptions. A trustee who disagrees with your exemptions will likely try to resolve the issue informally. If unsuccessful, the trustee will file an objection with the bankruptcy court, and the judge will decide whether you can keep the property.

    Example. Mason owns a rare, classic car worth $15,000, but the state vehicle exemption doesn't cover it entirely. Believing that the car qualifies as art—at least in his mind—Mason exempts it using his state's unlimited artwork exemption. The trustee disagrees with Mason's characterization and files an objection with the court. The judge will likely decide the vehicle doesn't qualify as art.

    Purposefully making inaccurate statements could be considered fraudulent. Bankruptcy fraud is punishable by up to $250,000, 20 years in prison, or both.

    Qualifying for Bankruptcy in Michigan

    If you've never filed for bankruptcy before, you'll meet the initial requirement. Otherwise, check whether enough time has passed to allow you to file again. The waiting period varies depending on the chapter previously filed and the chapter you plan to file. Learn more about multiple bankruptcy filings.

    You'll also need to meet specific chapter qualifications.

    You'll qualify for Chapter 7 bankruptcy if your family's gross income is lower than the median income for the same size family in your state. Add all gross income earned during the last six months and multiply it by two. Compare the figure to the income charts on the U.S. Trustee's website (select "Means Testing Information").

    Want an easy way to do this online? Use the Quick Median Income Test. If you find that you make too much, you still might qualify after taking the second part of the "means test." If, after subtracting expenses, you don't have enough remaining to pay into a Chapter 13 plan, you'll qualify for Chapter 7.

    Qualifying for Chapter 13 can be an expensive proposition because the extra benefits come at a hefty price, and many people can't afford the monthly payment. To qualify, you'll pay the larger of:

    Find out more about calculating a Chapter 13 bankruptcy payment.

    Hiring a Bankruptcy Lawyer in Michigan

    Most people find it worthwhile to get counsel. A bankruptcy attorney will help you:

    • qualify for the chapter of your choice
    • determine when it's time to file
    • help you keep the property you want
    • make sure you don't run afoul of fraud or other issues, and
    • explain when you can stop paying the bills you'll erase in your case.

    You can expect creditors to call until you file. It's usually best to ignore them because telling creditors about your bankruptcy can encourage them to take more drastic collection steps before losing the right to collect altogether. However, if you hire counsel and refer creditors to your lawyer, they'll have to stop calling you.

    Are you curious whether your case is simple enough to file yourself? Our quiz will help you identify potential complications while educating you about the bankruptcy process. You'll find it here: Do I Need a Lawyer to File for Bankruptcy?

    Filing Your Bankruptcy in Michigan

    Now that you've decided to file, the fun begins! Well, not really. The first step—gathering your financial information—can be a bit of a chore. But using our bankruptcy document checklist should help you organize the things you (or your attorney) will need.

    Bankruptcy Document Checklist

    Bankruptcy Forms, Means Test Multipliers, and Course Providers

    After assembling the documents, your next step will be to prepare the paperwork. Here's what you'll need and where to find it.

    • Bankruptcy forms. You'll find free downloadable bankruptcy forms on the U.S. Courts website.
    • Means test multipliers. Go to the U.S. Trustee website to get the figures needed to complete the means test.
    • Education providers. The U.S. Trustee website also lists providers under "Credit Counseling & Debtor Education." Scroll down until you get to your district. And don't give up—it's a long list. (Individuals must complete credit counseling during the 180 days before filing for bankruptcy and a debt management course after filing the bankruptcy case.)

    Michigan Bankruptcy Court Website and Locations

    Your case starts when you file your paperwork with the local bankruptcy court and either pay the filing fee or request a fee waiver.

    Michigan has two bankruptcy districts—Eastern and Western. Each has multiple locations serving various geographical areas. Clicking on the district name will take you to the court homepage.

    On the Michigan bankruptcy court website, you can access the district's local rules and instructions for filing your paperwork on the navbar under "Filing Without an Attorney" or "For Debtors."

    After Filing for Bankruptcy in Michigan

    Your creditors will stop bothering you soon after you file. It takes a few days because the court mails your creditors notice of the "automatic stay" order that prevents most creditors from continuing to ask you to pay them. Here's what will happen next:

    • You'll turn over financial documents proving the statements in your bankruptcy paperwork.
    • You'll attend the 341 meeting of creditors—the one appearance all filers must attend.
    • You'll complete a debtor education course and file the completion certificate.

    These things all must happen before you get a Chapter 7 bankruptcy discharge. Chapter 13 filers will also attend a repayment plan confirmation hearing and complete the three- to five-year payment plan.

    Need More Help?

    You might not know this, but Nolo has been making the law easy for over fifty years. If you have questions, use the links we've included throughout for more details. Otherwise, you'll find the answers to almost all of your bankruptcy questions at nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/bankruptcy.

    Providing all information needed to file for bankruptcy is beyond the scope of this article. If you'd like to file without an attorney, consider buying a self-help book like How to File Chapter 7 Bankruptcy by Attorney Cara O'Neill and Albin Renauer J.D. to help you make well-informed decisions about your bankruptcy matter.

    Updated April 27, 2021

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