If you've started selling your homemade jewelry online or running personal training sessions out of your garage, you've likely formed a sole proprietorship already—and you're not alone. When an individual starts a business (sells goods or services) and that person hasn't filed any legal documents with the state officially registering the business, then the person has automatically created a sole proprietorship.
A sole proprietorship is low maintenance. It doesn't typically require you to file any creation documents or submit renewal filings or fees, and you can usually report your income on your personal tax return. But sole proprietors are personally liable for the business's debts and obligations, so you might need to dip into your personal funds to satisfy any debts your business can't pay.
In Virginia, you can establish a sole proprietorship without filing any legal documents with the Virginia state government. Though no action is required to legally create a sole proprietorship, you should follow four simple steps to start your business:
For more information, read our article on how to start a business in Virginia.
As a sole proprietor in Virginia, you can use your own legal name or a fictitious name—also known as an "assumed name" or "DBA" (for "doing business as"). If you plan to use an assumed name for your business, you should avoid using the same name as any other business currently registered with the state.
It's also a good idea to choose a name that's not too similar to another registered business to avoid trademark infringement. Under trademark law, your trade name can't be used by someone else in a way that would cause confusion among consumers. So, if you use a name that's the same as or too similar to someone else's trademark and you both provide similar goods or services, then you could be infringing on that other person's trademark. If you find a competitor company already exists with a similar name, then it's best to choose another name.
For example, suppose you want to operate a bicycle repair business under the name "Pedal and Spoke Bicycle Repair." In the next town over, there's a store that sells and services bikes called "Pedals and Spokes Bicycle Shop" that's been in business for years. Because your repair business would have a similar name to a store that already exists, you should choose a different name.
To make sure your business name is available, you should run a search in the following government databases:
(For more information, read our FAQ on choosing and registering a business name.)
If you use a business name that's different from your legal name, Virginia requires you to register your business name with the county clerk of each county where you do business. (Va. Code § 59.1-69 (2023).)
For instance, suppose Dina Patel provides basic bookkeeping services under the name "Fine Line Accounting." Because Dina's business name, Fine Line Accounting, isn't the same as her legal name, she'll need to register her business name.
File your fictitious name online or by mail. To file online, use the SCC's CIS online filing system. To file by mail, download and complete a Certificate of Assumed or Fictitious Name. As of 2023, the filing fee is $10.
Depending on your business activities, you could need to apply for business or professional licenses. Check the licenses section of the Virginia state government website. The section has links to information about general business licenses as well as professional and occupational licenses.
In addition, you can find other useful information on the Virginia Department of Small Business & Supplier Diversity's Business OneStop website.
You might also need to comply with local regulations, building permits, and zoning laws. Check with your city and county governments for more information.
Sole proprietors who wish to have employees need to obtain an EIN. This is a nine-digit number issued by the IRS for tax reporting purposes. All businesses with employees are required to report wages to the IRS using an EIN. You can register for an EIN online with the IRS.
Sole proprietors without employees aren't required to have an EIN. Instead, you can use your Social Security number to report taxes. Nevertheless, you might want to obtain an EIN. Some banks require an EIN to open a bank account, and having an EIN can reduce the risk of identity theft.
In Virginia, businesses are required to report taxes and file various employee reports. You might need to use your EIN when reporting business taxes.
You should consider taking the following steps once you've established your sole proprietorship:
To find out how to form a sole proprietorship in any other state, see our state guide to establishing a sole proprietorship.
You might not need to submit paperwork to start a sole proprietorship in Virginia. But your specific circumstances could require you to file certain forms and comply with certain rules and regulations. As a business owner, it's important to understand what steps you need to take to legally start and operate your sole proprietorship.
If you have business experience and only need to meet a few requirements to establish your sole proprietorship, you can probably do the work yourself. But if you need specific guidance or run into a complicated issue when starting your business, you should talk to a small business lawyer. A lawyer can help you register your name, file your taxes, and obtain licenses and permits.