Facing financial challenges is a part of life. But if you're one of the millions struggling financially due to COVID-19 or another event, bankruptcy can help. Here, you'll find:
However, we couldn't squeeze everything into this article, so be sure to check out its companion What You Need to Know to File for Bankruptcy—you'll find lots more details there.
In most respects, filing for bankruptcy in Texas isn't any different than filing in another state. The bankruptcy process falls under federal law, not Texas state law, and it works by unwinding the contracts between you and your creditors—that's what gives you a fresh start.
But Texas's laws come into play, too, in a significant way. They determine the property you can keep in your bankruptcy case. You'll also need to know other filing information, which we explain after going over some basics.
Most people file either Chapter 7 or Chapter 13. If you don't know the differences between the two, you're not alone. The short explanation below and our handy Chapter 7 versus 13 chart will help clear things up.
Chapter 7 bankruptcy. Chapter 7 is often a bankruptcy filer's first choice for several reasons. It's quick—it only takes a few months to complete. And it's cheap—you don't pay anything to creditors. It works well for those of us whose property consists of the essential items needed to live and work.
People with more assets could lose them, however, especially if they own unnecessary luxury items. For instance, you might have to give up your RV, baseball card collection, or timeshare in the Bahamas—even your house or vehicle if you have too much equity in it or you're behind on the payments. Unlike Chapter 13, Chapter 7 doesn't have a payment plan option for catching up on late mortgage or car payments. So you could lose your home or car if you're behind when you file.
Chapter 13 bankruptcy. By contrast, Chapter 13 filers must pay creditors some or all of what they owe using a three- to five-year repayment plan. But the payment plan allows Chapter 13 to offer benefits not available in Chapter 7. For instance, not only do you keep all of your property, but you can save your home from foreclosure or your car from repossession. If you need time to repay a debt you can't discharge in bankruptcy, you can use this chapter to force a creditor into a payment plan. The biggest downside to this chapter? It can be expensive. Many people can't afford the monthly payment. Learn more about when filing Chapter 13 is better than Chapter 7.
Caution for businesspeople. Be sure to learn about the ins and outs of small business bankruptcies. The principles discussed apply to consumers only.
Bankruptcy wipes out many bills, like credit card balances, overdue utility payments, medical bills, personal loans, and more. You can even get rid of a mortgage or car payment if you're willing to give up the house or car that secures the debt. (Putting property up as collateral creates a "secured debt"—if you don't pay what you owe, the lender gets to take the property back.)
But you can't discharge all debts. Nondischargeable debts, like domestic support arrearages and recent tax debt, won't go away in bankruptcy, and student loans aren't easy to wipe out (you'd have to win a separate lawsuit). You'll want to be sure that bankruptcy will discharge (get rid of) enough bills to make it worth your while.
We all know that seeing the forest helps us recognize the trees, so it's probably a good time to consider the significant steps you'll take during your bankruptcy journey. Think of this checklist as a roadmap of sorts, but you can also use it to track your progress. The good news? You've already made headway on the first two items!
You won't lose everything in bankruptcy. You'll use your state bankruptcy exemption laws to protect your property. We list the significant exemptions below, but first, understanding the following will help you maximize what you'll keep in your case.
Here are some commonly-used Texas bankruptcy exemptions.
Texas offers an unlimited homestead exemption for a residence on 10 acres or less in a city, town, or village or 100 acres or less in the country. A family can double the acreage to 200. (Tex. Prop. Code Ann. §§ 41.001, 41.002, 41.003. See also the Texas Constitution, Article 16, §§ 50, 51.) Learn more about the Texas homestead exemption in bankruptcy.
The Texas motor vehicle exemption is also generous—the law allows you to exempt the entire value of one motor vehicle per licensed household member. If you have a household member who doesn't have a license, you can still exempt that vehicle if the unlicensed person relies on someone else to operate the vehicle. (Tex. Prop. Code Ann. § 41.002(a)(9).) Find out how the motor vehicle exemption works in a Chapter 7 case.
The personal property you exempt (things other than real estate) cannot exceed a total of $50,000 if you are a single adult without a family and $100,000 for a family. For example, if you and your family's personal property is worth $125,000, you can exempt $100,000 of it. The remaining $25,000 (or $75,000 if you're single) will be nonexempt. (Tex. Prop. Code Ann. § 42.002.)
It's important to check the personal property you can exempt because some items are limited to specific amounts. For instance, you can have only two guns, and your jewelry can't be worth more than 25% of the exemption amount ($12,500/$25,000). However, you can have an unlimited amount of these items, and they don't count against the $50,000/$100,000 cap:
Exempt your property carefully. The "bankruptcy trustee"—the court-appointed official assigned to manage your case—will review the exemptions. A trustee who disagrees with your exemptions will likely try to resolve the issue informally. If unsuccessful, the trustee will file an objection with the bankruptcy court, and the judge will decide whether you can keep the property.
Example. Mason owns a rare, classic car worth $15,000, but the state vehicle exemption doesn't cover it entirely. Believing that the car qualifies as art—at least in his mind—Mason exempts it using his state's unlimited artwork exemption. The trustee disagrees with Mason's characterization and files an objection with the court. The judge will likely decide the vehicle doesn't qualify as art.
Purposefully making inaccurate statements could be considered fraudulent. Bankruptcy fraud is punishable by up to $250,000, 20 years in prison, or both.
If you've never filed for bankruptcy before, you'll meet the initial requirement. Otherwise, check whether enough time has passed to allow you to file again. The waiting period varies depending on the chapter previously filed and the chapter you plan to file. Find out how long you'll need to wait if your situation involves multiple bankruptcy filings.
You'll also need to meet specific chapter qualifications.
You'll qualify for Chapter 7 bankruptcy if your family's gross income is lower than the median income for the same size family in your state. Add all gross income earned during the last six months and multiply it by two. Compare the figure to the income charts on the U.S. Trustee's website (select "Means Testing Information").
Want an easy way to do this online? Use the Quick Median Income Test. If you find that you make too much, you still might qualify after taking the second part of the "means test." If, after subtracting expenses, you don't have enough remaining to pay into a Chapter 13 plan, you'll qualify for Chapter 7.
Qualifying for Chapter 13 can be an expensive proposition because the extra benefits come at a hefty price, and many people can't afford the monthly payment. To qualify, you'll pay the larger of:
Find out more about calculating a Chapter 13 bankruptcy payment.
Most people find it worthwhile to get counsel. A bankruptcy attorney will help you:
You can expect creditors to call until you file. It's usually best to ignore them because telling creditors about your bankruptcy can encourage them to take more drastic collection steps before losing the right to collect altogether. However, if you hire counsel and refer creditors to your lawyer, they'll have to stop calling you.
Are you curious whether your case is simple enough to file yourself? Our quiz will help you identify potential complications while educating you about the bankruptcy process. You'll find it here: Do I Need a Lawyer to File for Bankruptcy?
Now that you've decided to file, the fun begins! Well, not really. The first step—gathering your financial information—can be a bit of a chore. But using our bankruptcy document checklist should help you organize the things you (or your attorney) will need.
After assembling the documents, your next step will be to prepare the paperwork. Here's what you'll need and where to find it.
Your case starts when you file your paperwork with the local bankruptcy court and either pay the filing fee or request a fee waiver. Texas is a large state and has four federal judicial districts, each with its own bankruptcy website and multiple divisions (19 in all—more than any other state).
Determining where to file isn't difficult, however. You'll go to the Federal Court Finder page, select "Bankruptcy" in the drop-down box, then enter your location. Or you can call any of the offices below and ask a court clerk for assistance. Also, you'll find the court's local rules and instructions for filing your paperwork on each district bankruptcy website. Click the link above and select the following from each site's nav bar:
Filing available at Lubbock, Abilene (hearings only)
Beaumont, Plano, Tyler, (Lufkin, Texarkana, Sherman hearings only)
Brownsville, McAllen, Laredo, Corpus Christi, Victoria, Galveston, Houston
Austin, El Paso, San Antonio, Waco, Midland (unstaffed)
Your creditors will stop bothering you soon after you file. It takes a few days because the court mails your creditors the notice of the "automatic stay" order that prevents most creditors from continuing to ask you to pay them. Here's what will happen next:
These things all must happen before you get a Chapter 7 bankruptcy discharge. Chapter 13 filers will also attend a repayment plan confirmation hearing and complete the three- to five-year payment plan.
You might not know this, but Nolo has been making the law easy for over fifty years. If you have questions, use the links we've included throughout for more details. Otherwise, you'll find the answers to almost all of your bankruptcy questions at www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/bankruptcy.
Providing all information needed to file for bankruptcy is beyond the scope of this article. If you'd like to file without an attorney, consider buying a self-help book like How to File Chapter 7 Bankruptcy by Attorney Cara O'Neill and Albin Renauer J.D. to help you make well-informed decisions about your bankruptcy matter.
Updated July 12, 2021