When you decide to undertake a home improvement project, you probably spend time considering style, color, and whether you'll need to hire a contractor or architect. But don't forget one more, especially important step: Determining whether you will need a building permit from your city or county, and if so, obtaining it (or making sure your contractor will do so).
Building permits are written authorizations issued by a city or county to construct a project. They are required for most construction or remodeling projects, in order to ensure the safety of the work and its compliance with building, construction, and zoning codes.
Not all construction requires a building permit. Whether your project needs a permit depends on what is required by your local building code. Each municipality is governed by its own code, which has its own permitting requirements. Codes tend to reflect regional issues. For example, in Florida, building codes often focus on safety considerations caused by humidity and heat. In rural regions prone to forest fires, the building code might include strict fireproofing requirements.
The projects most likely to require a permit are those that change the structure or use of a building or have the potential to create unsafe working conditions. For example, you will likely need a building permit to:
Projects that don't usually need a permit include:
In addition to obtaining a building permit, depending on the scope of your project, you might need to obtain special system permits, such as electrical, plumbing, or mechanical permits. For example, you might need to obtain a plumbing permit if you plan to install an underground lawn sprinkler. Or, you may need a mechanical permit to install a central air conditioning unit.
The only way to determine whether your project needs a permit is to consult your city building and permit office. Most have information online that you may review. They are also accustomed to addressing questions by phone and in-person, so don't hesitate to reach out to find the answers you need.
The typical steps to obtaining a building permit are:
The exact process varies by location.
If you hired a contractor for your project, it is customary for the contractor to arrange for; or, in contractor lingo, "pull" the permit. This is a good idea because typically the person who pulls the permit is responsible for construction following the code.
If you pull the permit, you will be considered the contractor (at least in the eyes of the city) and liable if there is a construction problem. Contractors are also often familiar with the process and the city's inspectors. The contractor's preexisting relationship with the city can work to your benefit.
On the other hand, if your contractor is charging by the hour, you might save money by completing the permit paperwork and submitting it yourself. The scope and complexity of your project will help you decide the best way to work with the city and obtain a permit.
If your project requires a permit, get a permit. If you are working with a contractor who suggests skipping this step, consider moving on to another contractor.
As cumbersome as the process can be, it will be better than dealing with the city if it finds out you should, but don't have a permit. The city might force you to obtain a permit and could double or triple the permitting fees. It may also shut down your project or require you to tear down your work (for example, remove a wall to see what's behind it) if there is a question as to whether the work was done according to code.
The worst thing would be if this were to happen when you're in the middle of trying to sell your house, which is when such issues often come to light. Unpermitted construction can lower your home's value, and you might even need to bring it up to code as a condition of the sale.
In short, it is not worth the risk. See "Discovering Unpermitted Construction When Selling Your Home" for more information on obtaining a permit after construction is complete.