Asylee and refugee status are special legal protections under U.S. immigration law, available to people who have left their home country for their own safety and are afraid to return. But receiving these protections isn't automatic: People fleeing persecution must submit applications and convince the U.S. government of their need. And no matter how convincing their fear, some must be denied asylum or refugee status regardless, including those who:
Let's take a closer look at each of these various bars to asylum or refugee status. (Also see the relevant federal law at I.N.A. 208(a)(2).)
The U.S. government will deny an application for refugee or asylum status if the person has ordered, incited, assisted, or participated in the persecution of any other person because of that person's race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.
For example, this rule has been used to deny refugee status to military or police officials who assisted in persecuting minority or guerrilla groups—even though these people might realistically fear for their life because members of these groups are seeking revenge against them. But U.S. and international law are not meant to protect persecutors, torturers, and their like.
Crimes and security or safety concerns are major bars to asylum seekers and refugee applicants.
Any applicant who has been convicted of a "particularly serious crime" and is therefore a danger to the community of the United States will not be granted asylum or refugee status.
For starters, all "aggravated felonies" are considered particularly serious crimes—and U.S. immigration laws strictly define what is an aggravated felony, such that some crimes that might have been called misdemeanors at the time of prosecution will be looked upon as aggravated felonies.
In addition, new rules put forth under the Trump Administration specified other types of criminal activity that are considered serious enough to bar a non-citizen from seeking asylum. (In the past, this matter was considered case-by-case.) Various nonprofits sued to block the new rules, and a court then put them on hold while awaiting the outcome of the litigation. (See Pangea Legal Services et al., v. DHS, et al., 11/19/20.) If the rules eventually survive the lawsuits (which were ongoing as of mid-2023), the new list will include:
Also, no person who has been convicted of a serious nonpolitical crime in a country outside the United States will be granted asylum or refugee status. However, people whose crimes were not serious or political in nature might still qualify. If, for example, you were arrested for taking part in a protest or uprising, this could actually help, not hurt your asylum claim—but consult with an experienced immigration attorney before you apply.
As for safety security violations, no person who has been involved in terrorist activity—or who can reasonably be regarded as a threat to U.S. security—will be granted asylum or refugee status. This bar was also expanded under the Trump Administration. A final rule issued in December, 2020 says that applicants can be found ineligible not only for asylum, but for withholding of removal, based on emergency public health concerns generated by a communicable disease.
People who have fled their home country, but then become "firmly resettled" in another country will also be denied asylum or refugee status. This means that the person has applied for protection in the U.S. but has also:
A person who has previously applied for asylum in the United States is not eligible to do so again if their previous asylum application was denied. This rule does not apply, however, if you are applying for asylum again because the situation in your home country has changed so much that it affects your eligibility for asylum.
A person who applies for asylum more than one year after entering the United States is barred from receiving asylum, whether they apply on their own ("affirmatively") or in removal (deportation) proceedings in immigration court.
Exceptions to this rule apply, however. If you are applying for asylum because the situation in your home country has changed so much that it affects your eligibility for asylum or if "extraordinary circumstances" prevented you from filing within one year, then you might qualify for such an exception. For more about this bar, take a look at Can I Still Apply for Asylum After the One-Year Filing Deadline?
A person who travels through a "safe third country" must apply for asylum in that country before applying for asylum in the United States. Despite its name, "safe third country" actually means a country that the United States has a formal agreement with (called a "treaty"), and that has complete asylum procedures, and where you would not be at risk of harm. In the past, the only country that met these qualifications was Canada.
However, the Trump administration expanded this, by creating a new regulation according to which travel through any third country that offered protection would be a bar to asylum if the person didn't apply for it and receive a denial. This particularly affected people who passed through Mexico on the way to the United States. The new regulation gave rise to multiple lawsuits and court injunctions, but then the Biden Administration introduced another new set of regulations that has much the same effect. Lawsuits are underway as of mid-2023. Speak with an attorney for the latest.