When you are applying for an immigrant visa or "green card" through a relative, but your relative dies before you are able to get the visa or green card, you might not be able to proceed with your case. This is because the petition filed by your relative as a necessary part of your visa/green card application is revoked under certain circumstances when your relative dies. (See Can Immigrant Still Get Green Card After U.S. Petitioner/Sponsor's Death?)
If this has happened to you, and you are the principal beneficiary rather than a family member who was named on the petition and planning to accompany the main beneficiary, you have another option. You can ask U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) to proceed with your case based on humanitarian reasons. (See 8 CFR § 205.1(a)(3)(i)(C)(2).)
You can request humanitarian reinstatement of a petition only if it had already been approved when your relative died. You should send a written request for reinstatement to the USCIS service center that approved the petition. Or, if you've already properly filed an application for adjustment of status with USCIS, you should send your request to the USCIS office with jurisdiction over the adjustment application.
In either case, you must include:
It would also be wise to include a cover letter, summarizing your request and clearly giving identifying information: the deceased sponsor's name and Alien Registration Number, if any, your name, and any other details you feel need explaining.
USCIS's decision on your request for humanitarian reinstatement is "discretionary," which means it can rule how it wants to, with very few limits on its authority. Reinstatement might be appropriate in "the furtherance of justice," bearing in mind that one of the goals of the U.S. immigration system is keeping families together.
Some of the factors that USCIS has traditionally considered in acting on reinstatement requests include:
Although family ties in the U.S. are important, you don't need to show "extreme hardship" to you or your relatives already living lawfully in the United States in order for the petition to be reinstated.
If USCIS decides to grant you humanitarian reinstatement, it will tell you. It will also send its the decision to either the Department of State (if you're outside the U.S.) or to the USCIS officer handling your adjustment application (if you're inside the United States). Your case will proceed as a normal family-based case would, with the substitute sponsor for the affidavit of support. All other requirements for getting the immigrant visa or green card remain the same.
If USCIS decides not to grant you humanitarian reinstatement, it will tell you in writing. You can't appeal USCIS's decision. Unfortunately, this means you will have to find some other way of getting an immigrant visa or green card.