Florida established one of the first ABLE programs in the nation. It's called ABLE United, and it's available to Florida residents only.
ABLE accounts are bank accounts that allow people with special needs to save money without jeopardizing their disability benefits. ABLE accounts come from the federal ABLE (Achieving a Better Life Experience) Act, but they are established and managed on a state level.
Most states have ABLE accounts, and each state has slightly different rules and procedures for opening and using an ABLE account. Below is an overview of the federal rules, as well as the features specific to Florida's ABLE United program.
When people with special needs apply for disability benefits, they must show that they do not have enough money to support themselves independently. Any money a person has in a traditional bank account count against that person's ability to qualify for disability benefits.
As a result, people with special needs are not able to build savings with the money they earn or receive through inheritance or gifts. On a day-to-day basis, this means that people with special needs must live with very little money if they want to receive government aid.
One workaround for this issue is to use a special needs trust which provides a place to save money that can be used for the benefit of the person with special needs (without affecting eligibility for benefits). But special needs trusts must be controlled by a trustee—not by the person with special needs who benefits from the trust. Not only does this leave people with special needs with little control over their finances, it also limits their independence.
ABLE accounts fill this gap by giving people with special needs the opportunity to manage a modest bank account without penalty against their eligibility for SSI, Medicaid, or other government benefits.
The basic rules for all ABLE accounts come from the federal ABLE Act. When states adopt and implement the ABLE Act, they must follow the federal rules and can also add their own rules and regulations. Here are some of the federal rules:
Read more about the federal rules for ABLE Bank Accounts.
When individual states adopt the ABLE Act and provide ABLE accounts for their residents, they may also make rules and policies about:
Here are some details about Florida's ABLE United account.
Employed individuals can contribute more. In addition to the $18,000 (in 2024) annual contribution, if the disabled person is working and not contributing to a defined contribution plan, deferred compensation plan, or annuity, the person can also contribute an additional amount to the ABLE United account: up to the lesser of 1) their annual salary before tax or 2) $13,590 (in 2023; this number is tied to the federal poverty level and is adjusted each year for inflation).
Medicaid expenses. A change in Florida law in 2019 also abolished Medicaid recovery from ABLE accounts. If the disabled person receives Medicaid benefits, this change is very favorable. Any remaining funds in an ABLE account must first be used for qualified disability expenses (including burial and funeral costs) and then the remainder can be transferred to the account beneficiaries (inheritors) without first reimbursing Medicaid costs.
You can learn about and compare ABLE accounts across the country at the website for the ABLE National Resource Center.