In Indiana, when you've been involved in a slip-and-fall, a car accident, or any other incident where someone else's conduct caused you harm, you may be thinking about filing a personal injury lawsuit in the state's civil court system. If so, it's crucial to understand and comply with the statute of limitations for this type of case. (For those not fluent in "legalese," a statute of limitations is a law that sets a strictly-enforced time limit on your right to file a lawsuit in court.)
In this article, we'll cover the details of Indiana's personal injury statute of limitations, explain why the deadline is so important, and summarize a few instances when the filing period might be extended.
The Indiana personal injury statute of limitations is spelled out at Indiana Code section 34-11-2-4, and it sets a two-year deadline for the filing of all lawsuits seeking a legal remedy for an "injury to person or character." It doesn't matter whether the case is driven by the liability principle of "negligence" (which applies to claims filed after most car accidents, slip and fall incidents, and other mishaps), intentional tort (which applies to civil cases filed over assault and other intentional conduct, or defamation (which involves an injury to "character").
So, when another person's careless or intentional act causes you injury, and you want to ask a Indiana court for a civil remedy (damages) for your losses, you have two years to get the initial documentation (the "complaint" and other required paperwork) filed in court, and the "clock" starts running on the date of the underlying accident.
If more than two years have passed since the underlying accident, but you try to file your personal injury lawsuit anyway, the defendant (the person you're trying to sue) will almost certainly file a motion to dismiss the case. And unless a rare exception entitles you to extra time (more details on these exceptions later), the court will grant the dismissal.
Indiana's personal injury statute of limitations is obviously pivotal if you want to take your injury case to court via a formal lawsuit, but the filing deadline set by this law is also crucial to your position in personal injury settlement negotiations with the defendant and his or her insurance company. If the other side knows that the two-year deadline has passed, you'll have lost all your negotiating leverage, and in that situation, "I'll see you in court" becomes an empty threat.
Indiana has identified a number of different scenarios that might delay the running of the statute of limitations "clock," or pause the clock after it has started to run, effectively extending the filing deadline. Here are some examples of circumstances that are likely to modify the standard timeline:
If you have questions about how the Indiana statute of limitations applies to your personal injury case -- especially if the deadline is fast-approaching or has already passed -- it may be time to discuss your situation with an experienced Indiana personal injury attorney.