If you are a senior or retired person, be sure to understand and take advantage of the deductions available to reduce your income taxes each year. Here are some of the most important tax deductions.
Every taxpayer can either take the standard deduction or itemize personal deductions on IRS Schedule A. You should take the standard deduction if your personal deductions (primarily home mortgage interest, real estate taxes, charitable contributions, and medical expenses) are less than the applicable standard deduction. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, the massive tax reform law that took effect in 2018, roughly doubled the standard deduction. As a result, about 90% of all taxpayers, including older Americans, take the standard deduction.
Anyone 65 and older by December 31 of the tax year is entitled to a higher standard deduction than younger folks. You can claim the higher deduction only if your spouse is older than 65 and you file a joint return.
Medical and dental expenses are often one of the largest expenses for retired people. Fortunately, some of these expenses are deductible if you itemize your personal deductions. These include health insurance premiums (including Medicare premiums), long-term care insurance premiums, prescription drugs, nursing home care, and most other out-of-pocket healthcare expenses.
If you itemize your deductions, medical and dental expenses are deductible from your income taxes on Schedule A of your tax return. However, they're subject to an annual limit. The limit is 7.5% of a taxpayer's adjusted gross income (AGI). So, only those expenses in excess of 7.5% of a taxpayer's AGI are deductible. For example, if someone's AGI is $100,000, only those medical and dental expenses above $7,500 (7.5% x $100,000 = $7,500) would be deductible.
To learn more, see Deducting Medical Expenses and IRS Publication 554, Tax Guide for Seniors (available on the IRS website).
Retirement is a time many people think about giving back to their community by making charitable contributions. Under the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act, during 2021, you can deduct up to $300 in charitable contributions as an "above the line" deduction without itemizing. Married taxpayers filing jointly can deduct up to $600. Contributions in excess of $300/600 are deductible only as itemized deductions and are subject to other limitations. The $300/$600 "above the line" charitable deduction is scheduled to end in 2021, so it won't be available for 2022 or later unless extended by Congress.
If you donate property other than cash to a qualified organization, you may generally deduct the property's fair market value. If the property has appreciated in value, however, you might have to make some adjustments. But if you donate a car, boat, or airplane, your deduction generally is limited to the gross proceeds from its sale by the charitable organization. This rule applies if the claimed value of the donated vehicle is more than $500.
Because charitable contributions are only deductible if you itemize, you might want to bunch your contributions into a single year so that you have enough personal deductions to itemize. For example, you could make substantial charitable contributions in one year and make none at all for one or more following years.
Retired people often sell their homes to move into smaller places or retirement communities. If you've lived in your home for a long time, you probably have substantial equity and will earn a large profit on the sale. Fortunately, you might not have to pay any tax on your profit. As long as you live in your home for at least two out of the five years before you sell your house, the profit you make on the sale—up to $250,000 for single taxpayers and $500,000 for married taxpayers filing jointly—isn't taxable.
Just because you're retired or semi-retired doesn't mean that you can't make tax-deductible contributions to retirement plans such as IRAs. Those over 50 have higher contribution limits for traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, and 401(k)s.
Or, you might prefer to contribute to a Roth IRA. You'll pay taxes on the income you contribute now, but the withdrawals upon retirement are tax-free. So, no tax must be paid on all the interest or other income earned by your Roth IRA investments.
Retirees with their own businesses may also establish SEP-IRAs, Simple IRAs, Keogh plans, and solo 401(k) plans that have higher contribution limits for those over 55.
Many retirees continue to run their own businesses or start new ones. For example, some retired employees work part-time as a consultant for their former employers and other clients. Having a business (whether full- or part-time) is a great way to get tax deductions. You may deduct from your business income all the necessary expenses you incur to do business, so long as they're reasonable in amount, including business travel, the cost of business equipment such as computers, and outside or home offices. If you incur a loss from your business, you might be able to deduct it from other income you earn, such as retirement income.