Rhode Island's Lila Manfield Sapinsley Compassionate Care Act

Rhode Island is considering a death with dignity bill that would allow terminally ill patients to request life-ending medication.

In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of states considering death with dignity laws. Sometimes called "assisted suicide," "right to die," or "medical aid in dying" initiatives, these laws make it possible for terminally ill patients to use prescribed medication to end their lives peacefully rather than suffering a painful and protracted death.

The catalyst for greater national attention to this issue was 29-year-old Brittany Maynard, a woman diagnosed with terminal brain cancer who moved from California to Oregon to end her life in 2014. Maynard chose Oregon because California had not yet passed its aid-in-dying law, and Oregon is just one of a few other states that allow terminally ill patients to receive aid in dying.

Rhode Island's 2023 Lila Manfield Sapinsley Compassionate Care Act

Legislators in Rhode Island have attempted to pass death with dignity legislation for more than 20 years. In the 2023 legislative session, the Rhode Island General Assembly is considering another death with dignity bill, called the Lila Manfield Sapinsley Compassionate Care Act (numbered SB126 in the state senate and HB5210 in the house of representatives), which would allow terminally ill patients who meet certain requirements to request life-ending medication. The bill is named in honor of Lila Manfield Sapinsley, a longtime Rhode Island legislator, who was preparing death with dignity legislation when she died in December 2014 at the age of 92.

This article first clarifies some confusing language related to death with dignity laws and then sets out the basics of Rhode Island's proposed law.

Death With Dignity, Assisted Suicide, Right to Die: What's in a Name?

"Death with dignity" and "medical aid in dying" are two of the most commonly accepted phrases describing the process by which a terminally ill person ingests prescribed medication to hasten death. Many people still think of this process as "assisted suicide" or "physician assisted suicide." However, proponents of death with dignity argue that the term "suicide" doesn't apply to terminally ill people who would prefer to live but, facing certain death within months, choose a more gentle way of dying. In fact, Rhode Island's proposed law states that terminating one's life under the law is not suicide. (See SB2126, Section 23-4.14-12 and HB5210, Section 23-4.14-12.)

Increasingly, health organizations are turning away from the term "suicide" to describe a terminally ill patient's choice to reduce the suffering of an inevitable death. The phrase "medical aid in dying" is becoming a more accepted way to refer to this process.

You might also see the phrase "right to die" used in place of "death with dignity." However, "right to die" is more accurately used in the context of directing one's own medical care—that is, refusing life-sustaining treatment such as a respirator or feeding tubes when permanently unconscious or close to death. You can provide your own health care directions by completing a Rhode Island living will and durable power of attorney for health care. (See the end of this article for more information.)

An Overview of Rhode Island's Lila Manfield Sapinsley Compassionate Care Act

Rhode Island's proposed law is modeled closely on Oregon's Death With Dignity Act, which took effect in 1997. If Rhode Island's law passes, a patient requesting aid-in-dying medication will have to be:

  • at least 18 years old
  • a Rhode Island resident
  • mentally capable of making and communicating health care decisions, and
  • diagnosed with a terminal disease that will result in death within six months.

A patient who meets the requirements above will be prescribed aid-in-dying medication only if:

  • The patient makes two verbal requests to their doctor, at least 15 days apart.
  • The patient gives a written request to the doctor, signed in front of two qualified, adult witnesses.
  • The prescribing doctor and one other doctor confirm the patient's diagnosis and prognosis.
  • The prescribing doctor and one other doctor determine that the patient is capable of making medical decisions.
  • The prescribing doctor confirms that the patient is not being coerced or unduly influenced by others when making the request.
  • The prescribing doctor confirms that the patient's judgment is not impaired or refers the patient for a psychological examination to confirm that the patient's judgment is not impaired.
  • The prescribing doctor informs the patient of any feasible alternatives to the medication, including treatment options and care to relieve pain and keep the patient comfortable.
  • The prescribing doctor offers the patient the opportunity to withdraw the request for aid-in-dying medication before granting the prescription.

To use the medication, the patient must be able to ingest it on their own. A doctor or other person who administers the lethal medication may face criminal charges.

You can read the full text of Rhode Island's Lila Manfield Sapinsley Compassionate Care Act on the Rhode Island General Assembly's website.

Learn More

To find out more about the history and current status of death with dignity laws in the United States, visit the website of the Death With Dignity National Center.

For information about appointing a health care agent and making known your own wishes for medical care at the end of life, see the Living Wills & Medical Powers of Attorney section of Nolo.com.

Updated February 3, 2023

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