There are almost too many exceptions to the
warrant requirement to count; courts have acknowledged a plethora of situations
in which officers need not seek judicial approval before conducting a search. You can read about many of them here.
Laptop Searches at International Borders
Learn about intrusive laptop searches by customs agents.
Searches by Private Citizens
In general, whatever a private citizen—rather than a police officer—uncovers through an
Do the Police Need a Warrant to Track You With Your Cellphone?
A “stingray” is a device the size of a suitcase that impersonates a cellphone tower. It tricks cellphones into connecting with it and in that way identifies the phones’ location.
Does the Government Need a Warrant to Get Cellphone Records Showing Where I've Been?
Cellphones do a lot more than allow us to communicate with the world: They also leave a record of where we’ve been.
Does the Fourth Amendment apply to searches by private people?
The Fourth Amendment applies to searches and seizures by agents of the government, not by private citizens. (Burdeau v. McDowell, 256 U.S. 465 (1921).)
Can a private business search your stuff, then turn it over to the police?
Question: What happens if you put your property in the hands of a private party, then that party calls the police and allows them to search it? Is the police search valid?