New York Home Buyers: What Does It Mean to Be "In Contract" and What Happens to Your Deposit

New York has real estate practices for signing contracts and closing sales that differ from other states'.

By , Attorney (Fordham University School of Law)

The procedure for contracting to buy a home in New York State differs from that in many other states. If you're planning to buy a home in New York, you'll need to become familiar with the basic steps and terminology, particularly if you've bought a home somewhere else before.

For starters, unlike in many other states, when you make an offer to purchase a home in New York and the seller accepts your offer, nothing legally prevents either side from walking away, almost regardless of the reason. You and the seller will not actually be legally bound to close the home purchase until the two of you have signed a formal contract, or are "in contract," which typically occurs at least one week after the seller accepts your offer.

Another important difference from many other states' procedures is that, upon signing the contract, you, the buyer, will need to make what's called a "contract deposit" or sometimes "downpayment," typically 10% of the purchase price. Don't confuse this with the down payment that's likely required by your mortgage lender at the closing, which is typically an additional 10% of the purchase price. This is more akin to the earnest money deposit made in other states, which serves as liquidated damages if you breach the contract and pull out of the deal.

This article discusses the process of getting "in contract" in New York and what happens to your 10% deposit once you make it.

What it Means to be "in Contract" When Buying a Home in New York

When someone makes an offer to purchase a home in New York, it's typically done by filling out a short offer form provided by the listing broker. Unlike in other states, you are not expected to sign a form contract when you make your offer.

If the New York seller accepts your offer, it's definitely good news, indicating that the seller is seriously interested in proceeding with the deal. The seller's acceptance might be communicated only orally to you or your broker, if you have one, by the seller's broker. Despite this good news, neither of you is yet legally bound to go through with the home sale.

Accordingly, once your offer is accepted, it's essential that you and your attorney work as quickly as possible to finalize and sign a contract of sale with the sellers. This contract will lay out all the terms of the deal, such as price, contingencies, and closing date.

Before signing such a contract in New York, you should have an inspection of the property conducted, and if you are purchasing a coop or condo, your attorney should review the building's books and records, including financial statements. Your attorney and the sellers' attorney will also be the ones to prepare and negotiate the contract of sale. After these steps are completed, the contract will be ready for you to sign.

Delivering the Deposit After Signing the New York Home Purchase Contract

When you sign the home purchase contract and deliver it to the sellers' attorney, you will also be expected to produce 10% of the purchase price for your new New York home. The mode of payment could be certified check, wire transfer, or personal check made out to the sellers' attorney or firm, for deposit in an escrow account. Your own attorney will provide you with specific instructions.

The amount will be deducted from the purchase price and the balance will be due at closing.

If paying by personal check, be careful that you have sufficient funds in your account to cover the full amount. Many contracts will allow the sellers to cancel the contract if this check is dishonored.

Next, the sellers will sign and deliver their signature pages to your attorney. At this point, you and the sellers are "in contract," and neither of you can walk away without being in breach and subject to legal liability.

Your home sellers are not allowed to go out and spend the contract deposit money at this point. The sellers' attorney must keep it in an attorney escrow account while the sale is pending. Typically, the account used will be non-interest bearing.

Using the Deposit Funds at Closing

During the escrow period, you should line up any necessary mortgage financing, and your attorney will conduct a title search to ensure that no liens or other clouds are outstanding against the property.

If all goes well, a closing will take place, at which title to the home is transferred to you and money is exchanged. You will then be expected to produce the balance of the purchase price, using a certified or bank check. Most likely, you will pay an additional 10% of the purchase price at this time, in addition to the 10% you paid when you signed the contract. The bank giving you a mortgage will pay the rest.

The sellers' attorney will likely use the deposit to pay sellers' closing costs. These may include real property transfer taxes, brokers' fees, and legal fees for the sellers' attorney. If any money remains, the sellers' attorney will transfer the balance to the seller.

Using the Contract Deposit as Liquidated Damages If Deal Doesn't Close

If, after signing a contract, you decide (without a reason justified by the contract) that you no longer want to purchase the home, you and your attorney should attempt to get the sellers to agree to cancel the contract and return your deposit. If they do not agree to this, and you walk away from the deal, the sellers might be able to keep your money.

Most residential real estate contracts in New York contain a provision entitling sellers to keep the deposit as "liquidated damages" if the purchaser defaults. A default happens if you refuse to close for a reason not contemplated in the contract.

Rest assured, however, that if your contract contains contingencies, or conditions based upon which the deal will be canceled without either party being in default, and you are canceling based upon one of those contingencies, your deposit will not be at risk. If, for example, you included a mortgage commitment contingency, and you were ultimately unable to get a mortgage, you will not be in default and should be able to end the contract without legal consequence.

If, however, you actually default; for example, your life plans change and you decide to stay in your old house, or move to another city; the sellers will notify you of their demand for the contract deposit. If you object within ten days, the sellers' attorney cannot release the money to the sellers. Instead, you will likely find yourself a party to litigation to determine who gets to keep the money.

The outcome of such litigation cannot be predicted, but New York courts have, in some cases, allowed home sellers to keep the contract deposit when purchasers defaulted. Accordingly, you should discuss any decision to walk away from a real estate contract with an experienced New York real estate attorney.

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