The criminal justice system for military service members has always been separate from the civilian courts. The levels of trial and appeal in the military justice system include a court-martial, a convening authority review, an appeal to the Court of Criminal Appeals (for Army, Navy-Marines, Air Force, or Coast Guard), and the United States Court of Appeal for the Armed Forces.
While veterans are usually tried in regular civilian courts, they are provided with some special protections. Also, in many states, veterans are now getting their own state courts for crimes related to substance abuse. These courts are called veterans treatment courts.