In a small number of U.S. states, including Washington, someone who was born outside the U.S. and who has no legal U.S. immigration status can nevertheless obtain a driver’s license. (The short term for such a person “undocumented.” You might also hear the slang term “illegal alien.”)
This article explains Washington’s law on getting a driver’s license if you are an undocumented person. This law was passed in 1993.
Getting a Washington driver’s license simply means that you are allowed to operate a vehicle within the state of Washington and to carry an identity card proving that fact.
Obtaining a Washington driver’s license does NOT give you any sort of legal status in the United States. Washington State has no power to legalize your U.S. immigration status—this is a matter governed solely by federal law. That means, for example, that you cannot use your license for federal identification purposes or to vote in U.S. elections. And you will not be eligible for what’s called an “enhanced” Washington drivers’ license, which are accepted at the ‘Ready Lane’ at the border crossing between Washington and Canada.
As an undocumented person wondering whether you are eligible for a Washington driver’s license without legal status or a Social Security Number (SSN), the important issue is whether you can meet the terms set out Chapter 46.20 of the Washington Code. The statute doesn’t directly talk about issuing licenses to undocumented immigrants—it just doesn’t require you to prove lawful immigration status in the United States.
The main requirement you will have to meet is that you can prove your identity and your residency in Washington State.
In order to prove identity, you can use things like a foreign passport, a consular ID card, a birth certificate, and various other documents. See the “Steps to getting your first driver license: Proof of identity” page of the Washington State Department of Licensing website (and be sure to check “B-List Documents.” You may need to provide several documents in order to satisfy this requirement.
In order to prove your residence in Washington, you will need to show someone at the licensing office such documents as home utility bills, school, college, or university transcripts or records, a Selective Service card, vehicle title document, bank, credit card, or mortgage documents showing your name and transaction history, your Individual Tax Identification Number (ITIN) letter from the IRS, DSHS benefits eligibility documents, a recent Washington marriage certificate or child’s birth certificate, and so on.
You will also, when you go to the driver’s licensing office to apply, be required to sign a declaration regarding your residence in Washington State.
If you present documents in a language other than English, you may be asked to also submit a translation done by an approved agency.
To apply, you will be expected to fill out an application form, pay fees, and pass a written exam, a vision screening, and a driving test. While study materials are available in a number of languages on the "Driver guide" page of the Department of Licensing (DOL) website, your language options for taking the written test are limited to English and Spanish.
For more information about applying, see the Steps to getting your first license page of the DOL website.
Think twice about applying if you have a record of driving while under the influence of alcohol or drugs (a DUI) or other criminal record, have been ordered deported (removed) in the past, or have used false documents to obtain a past drivers’ license. Consult with an experienced immigration attorney about the risks before applying. While applying for a license does not normally cause the Washington DMV to turn someone’s name over to federal authorities, it probably could not refuse such a request from enforcement officials if you run into trouble with the law.