California Probate: An Overview

The California probate process can be unusually expensive.

By , J.D. · UC Berkeley School of Law
Updated by Jeff Burtka, Attorney · George Mason University Law School

In California, going through probate—a court process to distribute a deceased person's property—after a loved one dies can add stress to an already painful situation.

Probate can involve a significant amount of time and money. In particular, California probate has one big drawback: extremely high attorney fees. But California offers a few legal shortcuts that allow many families to avoid probate court altogether after a loved one dies. Below is more about whether probate will be necessary in your situation, and what it entails.

Will Probate Be Necessary?

Probate isn't always necessary. Some assets don't go through probate. If the deceased person owned only the following types of assets, probate most likely won't be needed:

Assets inherited by the surviving spouse or registered domestic partner can also be transferred with a streamlined procedure, using a document called a Spousal (or Domestic Partner) Property Petition. The probate court is involved, but the process is simple and quick. There's no limit on the value of property that can be transferred this way. (Cal. Prob. Code §§ 13650, 13651 (2024).)

Other assets might not need to go through probate, either. If the total value of the probate estate (assets that can't be transferred to inheritors in one of the above ways) is small enough, probate won't be necessary. For deaths in 2024, the cap is $184,500. Inheritors can claim the assets with a simple sworn statement (affidavit) or can go through a streamlined summary probate process. California also has an affidavit process to claim real estate that doesn't have a value of more than $61,500. (Cal. Prob. Code §§ 13101, 13151, 13200 (2024).)

(For more information, see "Probate Shortcuts in California.")

The Basic Probate Process

If probate is necessary, someone must come forward to start the process. If there's a will, the executor named in the will should get the ball rolling. If there's no will, then a family member usually asks the court to be appointed as the administrator of the estate. Being an administrator is essentially the same job as being an executor.

The executor's job will probably last six months to a year. First, the executor files the will, along with a document called "Petition for Probate," with the probate court in the county where the deceased person lived. There's a filing fee of about $435; some counties charge a bit more. Some other forms might need to be filed as well, and formal notices need to be given to beneficiaries, particular family members, and creditors.

The will, if there is one, must be shown to be valid; usually this is done by having the witnesses sign a sworn statement that's submitted to the court. When everything is in order, the court issues "Letters Testamentary" or "Letters of Administration," appointing an executor and granting that person authority over estate assets.

Once the executor has this authority, the process of gathering the deceased person's assets can begin. It's also the time for the executor to get organized, set up a filing system so that benefits and bills aren't overlooked, apply for a taxpayer ID number for the estate, and open an estate bank account. The executor will need to compile, and file with the court, an inventory and appraisal of all probate property.

If all this sounds overwhelming, remember that it doesn't all have to be done at once. It does involve a lot of paperwork (and usually, phone calls), but most well-organized and conscientious people can handle it. And the executor can always get help, from family members or from an attorney who understands the process and can serve as a guide.

Most probate cases in California are handled under the state's Independent Administration of Estates Act, which lets the executor take care of most matters without having to get permission from the probate court. The executor can usually sell estate property, pay taxes, and approve or reject claims from creditors without court supervision. Certain other acts—for example, selling real estate—require court approval. (Cal. Prob. Code §§ 10400 through 10592 (2024).)

During the probate process, it's the executor's job to keep all assets safe. For example, a house must be insured and maintained and heirlooms must be safeguarded from theft or damage. The executor is also responsible for filing tax returns for the deceased person and for the estate.

Giving notice to creditors is an important step for an executor. In California, creditors have four months from the executor being appointed or 60 days from the executor giving notice, whichever is later, to come forward with their claims. (Cal. Prob. Code § 9100 (2024).)

Many estates don't receive any formal claims from creditors; instead, the executor simply pays outstanding bills (for expenses of the final illness, for example). If there isn't enough money to pay all valid claims, however, state law sets out the order in which claims are to be paid from estate assets. (Cal. Prob. Code §§ 9050 through 9054 (2024).)

Finally, when all bills and taxes have been paid, the executor asks the court to close the estate. That's when the executor can distribute all the estate assets to the people who inherit them.

Probate Attorney Fees in California

In most states, lawyers may charge only by the hour or collect a flat fee for probate work. Not so in California. It's one of only a few states that allows lawyers to charge a "statutory fee"—an amount that's a percentage of the value of the assets that go through probate. The percentages are set out in state statutes. (Cal. Prob. Code §§ 10810, 10811 (2024).)

Here are the current rates:

  • 4% of the first $100,000 of the gross value of the probate estate
  • 3% of the next $100,000
  • 2% of the next $800,000
  • 1% of the next $9 million
  • .5% of the next $15 million
  • A reasonable amount (determined by the court) for any amounts higher than $25 million

In practice, this means that probate lawyers' fees can be very high in relation to the amount of actual work done. Probate is usually a matter of filing papers; there's no trial and there might be no court appearances at all. So, let's say your probate estate contains a $600,000 house you own in your name alone, plus some bank and brokerage accounts and a car. The total value is $900,000. The attorney's statutory fee would be $21,000—for very little paperwork.

But wait, what if there's still $200,000 to pay on the mortgage, reducing your equity to $400,000? The attorney's fee would still be $21,000—it's based on the gross amount of the probate assets, not what you actually own.

California lawyers don't have to charge this way—they can bill by the hour or charge a flat fee. But many follow the statutory fee schedule because it's such a good deal for them. And the fees are only for ordinary work—if there's something "extraordinary," the lawyer can ask for an even bigger fee.

Getting Help and More Information

If your loved one's estate will go through probate, you can hire a probate attorney. But, unless people are fighting over the estate, probate is largely a matter of paperwork. In California, the paperwork is mostly fill-in-the-blank forms published by the state's Judicial Council. All those forms are available on the California Judicial Council's website.

Still, having forms and knowing what to do with them are different things. For more than 25 years, the single best source of guidance for conducting a probate court proceeding without a lawyer is How to Probate an Estate in California, by Lisa Fialco (Nolo). It takes executors through the whole process and provides step-by-step instructions for all forms. Even if you do choose to work with a lawyer, this guide also helps you understand the process and possibly take on some of the work.

For a rundown of common probate-avoidance techniques, see our book, Every Californian's Guide to Estate Planning, by Liza Hanks (Nolo).

For more on California estate planning issues, see our section on California Estate Planning.

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