Each state has laws affecting what happens to a body after death. For example, most states have unique rules about embalming, burial or cremation, scattering ashes, and how to get a death certificate. Here are answers to some common questions about post-death matters in North Dakota.
Typically, the funeral home, mortuary, cremation organization, or other person in charge of the deceased person’s remains prepares and files the death certificate.
You may need copies of a death certificate for a number of reasons. You might simply want a copy for your personal records or, if you are in charge of wrapping up the deceased person’s affairs, you may require multiple, official copies to carry out your job. You will need to submit a certified copy of the death certificate each time you claim property or benefits that belonged to the deceased person, including life insurance proceeds, Social Security benefits, payable on death accounts, veterans benefits, and many others.
In North Dakota, a funeral director must file the death certificate with the state registrar within three days after assuming custody of the body. (North Dakota Century Code § 23-02.1-19.) The easiest way to get copies of a death certificate is to ask the person or organization that files the certificate to order them for you at the time of the death. If you are the executor of the estate, you should ask for at least ten certified copies.
If you need to order copies of a death certificate later, visit the website of the North Dakota Department of Health. From the DOH website, you can find instructions for ordering death certificates by mail, fax, online, or in person.
You must provide a copy of an acceptable form of identification, such as a government-issued photo ID, when you order the death certificate. The first certified copy of a North Dakota death certificate costs $5; additional copies are $2 each.
In North Dakota, there are three kinds of certified death certificates:
Certification of the facts of death. This type of certificate is available immediately after the death certificate is filed. It includes the deceased person’s Social Security number, but not the cause of death. Immediate family members can use it to handle many banking and property transactions on behalf of the deceased person’s estate.
Certification of death. This is a complete death certificate, including the deceased person’s Social Security number and the cause of death. This type of record may be necessary to claim life insurance benefits or to handle other transactions where the cause of death is required. If you get a certification of facts (above) you can exchange it, free of charge, for a certified death record for up to 90 days following the date of death.
Informational copy of death record. This type of certificate is useful for genealogists or others who need a death record but do not need the deceased person’s Social Security number or cause of death.
The following individuals may order a certification of the facts of death or full certification of death:
In addition, any licensed attorney may obtain a copy of a certification of the facts of death if it is needed for a legal reason. An informational copy of a death record is available to anyone who requests it.
The funeral director obtains the statistical data about the deceased person from the next of kin. The physician in charge of the patient's care for his or her last illness or condition that resulted in death completes the medical certification portion of the death certificate. If there was no attending physician at the time of death or when inquiry is necessary, the coroner investigates the cause of death and completes and files the medical certification. The physician or coroner completes the medical certification within 10 days after death via the electronic death registration system. If the cause of death can't be determine within 10 days, the medical certification can be completed when the cause of death is determined. The physician or coroner gives the funeral director the reason for the delay, and the body can't be buried until the physician or coroner permits it. (North Dakota Century Code § 23-02.1-19.)
Embalming is a process in which blood is drained from the body and replaced with fluids that delay disintegration. Though it is still a common procedure, embalming is rarely necessary; refrigeration serves the same purpose.
In North Dakota, a body must be embalmed or refrigerated if it will be transported but cannot reach its final destination within 48 hours. If the body cannot reach its destination within 72 hours, it must be embalmed. Finally, embalming is required if the death was due to certain communicable diseases. (North Dakota Century Code § 33-06-15-01.)
A casket is often the single greatest expense incurred after a death. The cost of a casket can range from a simple $500 box to $20,000 or more for an elaborate design. Some people prefer to forgo a casket altogether.
Burial. No law requires a casket for burial. However, you should check with the cemetery; it may have rules requiring a certain type of container.
Cremation. No law requires a casket for cremation. On the contrary, federal law requires a funeral home or crematory to inform you that you may use an alternative container, and to make such containers available to you. An alternative container may be made of unfinished wood, pressed wood, fiberboard, or cardboard.
No. Federal law requires funeral homes to accept caskets that consumers have purchased from another source, such as an online retailer. You may also build a casket, if you prefer.
Before burying a body, the funeral director must obtain a disposition-transit permit that the state registrar issues. The permit is filed in the office of the county recorder where the body will be recorded. (North Dakota Century Code § 23-02.1-21.) Most bodies are buried in established cemeteries, but burial on private property may be possible with permission of the health department. (See North Dakota Century Code § 23-06-20.) If you want to establish a private cemetery, you must have the land surveyed and record the plat with the deed. Before proceeding with burial on private land, check with the county or town clerk for any zoning laws that may apply.
In North Dakota, no state law controls where you may keep or scatter ashes. Ashes may be stored in a crypt, niche, grave, or container at home. If you wish to scatter ashes, you have many options. Cremation renders ashes harmless, so there is no public health risk involved in scattering ashes. Use common sense and refrain from scattering ashes in places where they would be obvious to others.
Scattering ashes in an established scattering garden. Many cemeteries provide gardens for scattering ashes. If you’re interested, ask the cemetery for more information.
Scattering ashes on private land. You are allowed to scatter ashes on your own private property. If you want to scatter ashes on someone else’s private land, it’s wise to get permission from the landowner.
Scattering ashes on public land. You may wish to check both city and county regulations and zoning rules before scattering ashes on local public land, such as in a city park. However, many people simply proceed as they wish, letting their best judgment be their guide.
Scattering ashes on federal land. Officially, you should request permission before scattering ashes on federal land. As with local or state land, however, you will probably encounter no resistance if you conduct the scattering ceremony quietly and keep the ashes well away from trails, roads, facilities, and waterways. You can find guidelines for scattering ashes on the websites for some national parks. For more information, begin your search at the website of the National Park Service.
Scattering ashes at sea. The federal Clean Water Act requires that cremated remains be scattered at least three nautical miles from land. If the container will not easily decompose, you must dispose of it separately. The EPA does not permit scattering at beaches or in wading pools by the sea. Finally, you must notify the EPA within 30 days of scattering ashes at sea.
The Clean Water Act also governs scattering in inland waters such as rivers or lakes. For inland water burial, you may be legally required to obtain a permit from the state agency that manages the waterway.
For more information, see Burial of Human Remains at Sea on the EPA website.
Scattering ashes by air. While there are no state laws on the matter, federal aviation laws do prohibit dropping any objects that might cause harm to people or property. The U.S. government does not consider cremains to be hazardous material; all should be well so long as you remove the ashes from their container before scattering.
To learn about the federal Funeral Rule, which protects consumers in all states, visit the website of the Federal Trade Commission.
For more information about funeral laws in North Dakota, see Making Funeral Arrangements in North Dakota.
To find out more about funerals and other final arrangements, see the Getting Your Affairs in Order section of Nolo.com.
Get It Together, by Melanie Cullen (Nolo) helps you gather and organize the essential details of your life for yourself and your family.