The length of time for which you will be allowed to stay in the U.S. on a J-1 exchange visitor visa depends on the type of program you will be participating in and the dates of your planned participation. (For basic eligibility requirements, see "A J-1 Visa to the U.S.: Who Qualifies?")
In order to obtain a J-1 visa, you will need to present a Certificate of Eligibility, Form SEVIS DS-2019. This form will be given to you by the sponsor of your exchange visitor program. The form will list the specific dates you are expected to be participating in the program.
Upon entering the U.S. with your J-1 visa, you will be authorized to remain only up to the final date indicated on the Certificate of Eligibility. USCIS regulations, however, place some maximum time limits on J-1 visas according to the type of program.
Length of Time Students Can Stay in the U.S. on a J-1 Visa
Most students may remain in the U.S. for the duration of their programs plus an additional 18 months of practical training employment. Practical training is any employment directly related to the subject matter of the student’s major field of study. Remaining in the U.S. for the additional 18 months of practical training is at the student’s discretion. Postdoctoral training is limited to 36 months minus any previously used practical training time.
However, students between the ages of 15 and 18½ who are participating in a high school exchange program (living with a U.S. host family or residing at an accredited U.S. boarding school) are limited to one year’s stay. They are not allowed to accept U.S. employment, except at odd jobs such as babysitting or yard work.
Length of Time Teachers, Professors, Research Scholars, and People With Specialized Skills Can Stay in the U.S. on a J-1 Visa
Exchange visitors who are teachers, professors, research scholars, or people with specialized skills may be issued J-1 visas for no more than five years, plus 30 days in which to prepare to depart the United States.
Length of Time International Visitors Can Stay in the U.S. on a J-1 Visa
International visitors whose purpose it is to promote cultural exchange, such as those working in places like the cultural/ethnic pavilions of Disney’s Epcot Center, may be issued J-1 visas for no more than one year, plus 30 days in which to prepare to depart the United States. People qualifying under this category may, alternatively, be eligible for Q visas.
Length of Time Foreign Medical Graduate Students Can Stay in the U.S. on a J-1 Visa
Foreign medical graduates may be issued J-1 visas for the length of time necessary to complete their training programs, up to a usual maximum of seven years (with limited exceptions), plus 30 days in which to prepare to depart the United States.
Length of Time People Participating in Other Medically Related Programs Can Stay in the U.S. on a J-1 Visa
Participants in medically related programs other than those for foreign medical graduates may be issued J-1 visas for the duration of their educational programs plus 18 months of practical training. However, the total time of both program participation and practical training may not be more than three years.
Length of Time Business and Industrial Trainees Can Stay in the U.S. on a J-1 Visa
Business and industrial trainees may be issued J-1 visas for a maximum of 18 months. Trainees in flight programs may be issued J-1 visas for a maximum of 24 months. However, flight students must provide extra documentation about their plans, for security reasons.
Length of Time Interns Can Stay in the U.S. on a J-1 Visa
Interns are eligible for up to 12 months of J-1 status to work with a U.S. employer while in the midst of a degree program in their home country or within one year of graduation.
Length of Time Employees of the International Communications Agency Can Stay in the U.S. on a J-1 Visa
Participants in this particular exchange visitor program may be issued J-1 visas for up to ten years or even longer if the director of the International Communications Agency makes a special request to USCIS.
Length of Time Research Assistants Sponsored by the National Institutes of Health Can Stay in the U.S. on a J-1 Visa
Participants in the NIH research assistants exchange visitor program may be issued J-1 visas for a period of up to five years.
Length of Time Au Pairs Can Stay in the U.S. on a J-1 Visa
Au pairs who are between ages 18 and 26 may come to the U.S. on J-1 visas to live with and perform child care (but not do other housework) for U.S. families. Au pairs may work no more than ten hours per day, 45 hours per week, be paid at least the minimum wage, and must attend an institution of higher education to earn at least six hours of academic credit. Not many agencies have been approved to issue Certificates of Eligibility for bringing au pairs to the United States. Stays are limited to only one year and cannot be extended. If this program interests you, check the State Department website at http://exchanges.state.gov.
Length of Time Government Visitors Can Stay in the U.S. on a J-1 Visa
Visitors may be invited by the U.S. government to participate in exchanges that strengthen professional and personal ties between key foreign nationals and the United States and U.S. institutions. They may be issued J-1 visas for the length of time necessary to complete the program, but no more than 18 months.
Length of Time Camp Counselors Can Stay in the U.S. on a J-1 Visa
Youth workers over the age of 18 coming to serve as counselors in U.S. summer camps may be issued J-1 visas for a maximum of four months.
Length of Time Summer Work Travelers Can Stay in the U.S. on a J-1 Visa
Postsecondary students may use a J-1 visa to work and travel in the United States for a four-month period during their summer vacations. This must be arranged through DOS-designated sponsors.
Length of Time Short-Term Scholars Can Stay in the U.S. on a J-1 Visa
Professors and other academics participating in short-term activities, such as seminars, workshops, conferences, study tours, or professional meetings, may be granted up to six months on a J-1 visa.
Exceptions to the General Rules
An exchange visitor may be allowed to remain in the U.S. beyond the limitations stated above if exceptional circumstances arise that are beyond the exchange visitor’s control, such as illness or a similar emergency.