As one of the final steps to sponsor an H-1B worker for employment in the U.S., the employer must file an I-129 petition with U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). This petition asks the agency to approve the employer's offer of employment and allow the foreign worker to apply for an H-1B visa at the U.S. consulate or embassy (if he or she is coming from abroad) or to change and/or extend the person's immigration status (if he or she is already in the United States).
This article describes the nuts and bolts of preparing this petition.
Below are the materials that the employer typically must include with the petition for an H-1B worker:
The I-129 petition may seem simple enough, but it's full of traps for the unwary. Be sure to read the instructions carefully and consult an immigration lawyer if you're unsure which box to check or what information to provide.
For example, you need to determine whether the foreign worker is in the U.S. or abroad and then check the proper box to instruct USCIS either to send notification of the petition approval to the U.S. consulate or embassy in the worker's home country or to change and/or extend the worker's status if in the United States. In some cases, the worker may be in the U.S. but not eligible to change or extend status, so you need to evaluate this and then check the appropriate box on the form.
Another section that can be difficult is the certification requirement relating to controlled technology or technical data. Since February 20, 2011, employers filing H-1B petitions must certify that they have reviewed applicable regulatory provisions and determined whether the technology or technical data that they will release to the foreign national employee requires an export license. This due diligence requirement comes under the "deemed export rule," which provides that if the technology or technical data actually were exported to the person's country of nationality, then the organization must obtain an export license before that person can access it within the United States. The two regulatory areas involved are the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) as related to items on the Commerce Control List (CCL) and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) as related to items on the U.S. Munitions List (USML). In general, these are items that have either a specific military purpose or use or are so-called "dual use" items, which have both a civilian and military purpose.
Because there can be severe penalties if an export license is required and you do not obtain one, it's important to review the technology and technical data to which the H-1B worker will have access and then determine whether an export license is required.
The employer must mail the I-129 petition to the USCIS Service Center that has jurisdiction over the place of employment. Check the USCIS webpage on direct filing addresses for Form I-129 for the correct mailing address.
If the petition is for someone outside the U.S., you need to include the original and a copy of the complete petition and supporting documents. USCIS uses the copy to send a notification of the approval to the U.S. consulate or embassy where the person will apply for the H-1B visa.
If you receive a request for evidence ("RFE"), in which the immigration officer asks for additional documents or information, be sure to send originals of the response documents and a copy.
The typical USCIS processing time is two to four months. For an enhanced fee of $1,225 (as of 2016) for “premium processing,” USCIS guarantees an initial processing time of 15 calendar days. If USCIS asks for additional documents, a new 15-day clock begins from the time USCIS receives your response. One thing to think about with premium processing is the validity date of the H-1B petition. If you are filing on April 1 and requesting an effective date of October 1 for the next fiscal year's allotment of H-1B visas, premium processing cannot yield an earlier effective date. You may receive your approval in mid- to late-April, but the petition will not be effective until October 1. If your prospective employee is outside the U.S., this means he or she still will need to wait until October 1 to start working for you.
Keep in mind that for most H-1B jobs there is an annual quota of visas that may impact when you can file your petition. If the H-1B candidate you are planning to hire already has H-1B status and previously was counted against a prior year's quota, you can file your petition any time. If the candidate is subject to the quota, you will likely need to file the I-129 as early as possible, which is the first week of April (that is, six months before the earliest possible start date of October 1).
In recent years the demand for H-1Bs has greatly exceeded the supply, so USCIS has conducted a “lottery” to select which I-129 petitions, among those submitted in the first week of April, may proceed.