Whether you own a house in Des Moines or a large parcel of land in Waterloo, your home is probably your most valuable asset. You should, therefore, do everything in your power to protect it. If you’re a property owner in Iowa, you likely have two or three neighbors whose land borders yours. While it may seem surprising, those neighbors might be able to gain legal title to pieces of your property under a legal concept called adverse possession. And while less likely, the law also allows an unknown trespasser to squat on your land and develop the same type of claim to ownership.
To make sure that your land remains yours and that a neighbor can’t claim a portion of it, you should familiarize yourself with the Iowa’s rules on adverse possession. There may also be times when you yourself need to assert an adverse possession claim, over land that you feel you’ve developed a right to use and want to continue using.
Adverse possession is a legal concept that allows a trespasser—sometimes a stranger but more often a neighbor—to gain legal title over the land of the property owner.
The concept developed in early Britain. Archaic though its roots might be, the law’s continued utility is to achieve a fair result when one owner has neglected or forgotten about a piece of land while another has been using or caring for it for so long that to make the trespasser leave would actually create hardship.
Adverse possession in Iowa is controlled by statute (laws passed by the state legislature), but also by the state courts.
Importantly, the burden of proof to establish a claim of adverse possession is on the trespasser. The legal holder of title has the presumption of ownership until the adverse possessor can meet that burden. In other words, it is entirely the trespasser’s job to prove that the judge should give him or her ownership over the land. Just making the claim and hoping the other side won't do a good enough job defending against it is not likely to win the day.
There is no single statute in Iowa that articulates the elements that a trespasser must establish to prove adverse possession. Rather, the courts have established a variety of such factors, over many decades.
As in most states, adverse possession in Iowa is established from the nature of a trespasser’s possession and the length of time the person possesses the land. A trespasser’s possession must be:
For example, imagine that Brian and Molly live next to one another in Springfield. There is no dividing fence or boundary between their yards. Brian builds a shed that is actually on Molly’s side of the property, covering about ten square feet of earth. Molly doesn’t say anything. Brian uses the shed as if it were on his own land. He does this for ten years. Under the rubric described above, Brian can probably establish that he “owns” the land on which he was encroaching. Molly could have stopped Brian by asking, over those ten years, that he remove his shed, or insist that he sign a rental agreement. But Iowa courts won’t let Molly suddenly eject Brian after she sat on her rights for a decade.
Some states care whether the trespasser knew that he or she was trespassing. Iowa does not. The doctrine of adverse possession protects one who has honestly entered and held possession in the belief that the land is his or her own, as well as one who knowingly appropriates the land of others for the specific purpose of acquiring title.
In other words, in Iowa, there is no requirement that the entry and continued possession of the property be done with knowing or intentional hostility.
Rather, any entry and possession for the required ten years that is exclusive, continuous, hostile, actual, and open—even if under a mistaken claim of title—is sufficient to support a claim of title by adverse possession. In our example above, it doesn’t matter whether Brian built the shed knowing that he was on Molly’s land, or whether he built it mistakenly thinking it was on his own land. His intent has no bearing on his eventual claim for title under adverse possession.
What should you do if you spot a trespasser or a neighbor encroaching on your land?
Chances are, it’s an innocent mistake on the person's part. Given that, your first step should be to nicely ask the trespasser to move. More often than not, the person will comply.
If the trespasser does not comply, you may be forced to consult a lawyer and bring an action to quiet title—a legal method for determining who holds title to land. In an action to quiet title, you’re asking an Iowa state court judge to issue an order declaring that you, and not the trespasser, are the true owner of the land.
A quiet title order is particularly helpful if you are intending to sell your property, and will need to reassure potential buyers about its boundaries and rightful ownership.
Land held by Iowa state and municipal government entities are generally immune from adverse possession actions. In other words, title to public lands generally can’t be acquired by adverse possession as against the State. So, if you live next to an unused state park in Dubuque, you won’t be able to expand your backyard merely by mowing the lawn or building a shed and waiting ten years. The state of Iowa will still “own” that land.