When it comes to foreclosure, lenders and servicers have not always provided homeowners with a significant opportunity to obtain loss mitigation options to avoid foreclosure. To address this issue, on June 3, 2013, Nevada Governor Brian Sandoval approved Senate Bill 321, enacting a Homeowner’s Bill of Rights to better protect homeowners in foreclosure. Read on to learn about the protections for homeowners and how the Homeowner’s Bill of Rights can help you if you are facing foreclosure in Nevada. (For more articles on Nevada foreclosure law and assistance for Nevada homeowners facing foreclosure, visit our Nevada Foreclosure Law Center.)
The purpose of the Homeowner’s Bill of Rights is to provide homeowners in the state of Nevada with better consumer protections, as well as fair and honest treatment in the servicing of mortgage loans in default, especially when it comes to the loss mitigation process. (Learn more about loan modifications and the different types of loss mitigation options in our Alternatives to Foreclosure area.)
(Learn more about the Nevada foreclosure process.)
The Nevada Homeowner’s Bill of Rights provides protections for struggling Nevada homeowners facing possible foreclosure.
At least 30 calendar days before recording a notice of default or starting a judicial foreclosure action and at least 30 calendar days after a borrower’s default, the mortgage servicer must provide the borrower a written notice containing (among other things):
The mortgage servicer must contact the borrower in person or by telephone to discuss the borrower’s financial situation and to explore options to avoid foreclosure 30 days prior to starting a foreclosure. (Though if the servicer is unable to reach the borrower, it may proceed with foreclosure so long as it meets certain calling and mailing requirements.)
If the borrower submits a loss mitigation application, the mortgage servicer must:
However, the servicer is not required to evaluate a loss mitigation application if the borrower has already had a fair opportunity to be evaluated for a foreclosure prevention alternative, unless there has been a change in the borrower’s financial circumstances since the previous application.
Nevada’s Homeowner’s Bill of Rights bans the dual tracking of foreclosures. (Dual tracking is when the lender proceeds with the foreclosure while a loss mitigation application is pending). This means loan servicers must make a decision to grant or deny the application before starting or continuing with the foreclosure process.
What does this mean for homeowners? Once the homeowner submits a complete loss mitigation application, the foreclosure is stalled while the loan servicer reviews the application and makes a decision. Even if the lender denies the loss mitigation, it still cannot foreclose until any applicable appeals period (generally 30 days) has expired.
In the past, homeowners who called their lender to get help with mortgage problems have had to explain their circumstances repeatedly, often to several different representatives.
Under the Homeowner’s Bill of Rights, the mortgage servicer must establish a single point of contact whose responsibilities including:
The contact person remains assigned to the account until all loss mitigation options are exhausted or until the account is brought current.
Homeowners may sue the lender or servicer for violations of the Homeowner’s Bill of Rights. Potential relief includes:
In addition, if the court finds that the violation was intentional, reckless, or resulted from willful misconduct by a loan servicer or lender, the court may award the borrower the greater of triple actual damages or statutory damages of $50,000.
The Homeowner’s Bill of Rights also requires that a foreclosure action be dismissed (for judicial foreclosures) or the foreclosure documents rescinded (for nonjudicial foreclosures) and any pending foreclosure sale cancelled when:
The protections afforded to homeowners by the Homeowner’s Bill of Rights generally apply to first mortgage loans for properties that are:
However, the protections do not apply to borrowers who have:
Institutions that foreclosed on 100 or fewer owner-occupied homes in the preceding annual reporting period, as established by their primary regulator, are exempt from the law.
To read the history and get a copy of the Nevada Homeowner’s Bill of Rights, you can go to www.leg.state.nv.us. Hover over “Session Info,” then choose “77th (2013) Session,” then click on “Bill Information” and “History of Specific Legislation.” Choose “Senate Bill” from the drop-down menu and enter “321” in the search box.