How Every State's Legal System Is Operating During COVID-19

Use our 50-state tracker to learn how courts are operating in your state.

Updated July 29, 2022

Access to justice isn't just a concept—it's a constitutional right. People depend on the legal system for custody rights, business disputes, violence protection orders, tenants' rights, and much more.

Initially, COVID-19 emergency orders shuttered many courthouse doors, forcing the legal system to adjust operations. Most courts suspended jury trials and conducted other hearings remotely. But the legal system remained up and running.

Now, across the country courts are open and busy with backlogs of postponed cases. Depending on where you live, your courthouse may be conducting hearings in person—either with masks or mask-optional. Other courts continue to conduct many hearings remotely.

Make sure to contact your local court directly for the latest information on court openings, closings, and remote access capabilities.

50-State Tracker: COVID-19 Legal System Responses

Check out your state's response in the chart below. The chart provides links to each state's government and judicial COVID-19 response pages, as well as general information on the resumption of in-court hearings and jury trials (note that criminal cases generally resume sooner than civil cases). We continue to update the chart, and you'll find the date of the most recent update above. But information changes rapidly, and you should visit your state's website for the most current information. You'll likely need to find links for your city, county, or local courthouse to learn information specific to your area.

State State Court Website Jury Trials In-Person Proceedings
Alabama AL Court Website Jury trials are proceeding, but check local court for more information.The Alabama State Bar Association also tracks the status of individual counties. Per 8/20/21 Administrative Order No. 13 and 3/23/22 Administrative Order No. 16, a temporary state of emergency is in place until 9/30/22. With limited exceptions, appearances must be conducted remotely. Masks are generally required for in-person appearances. Check local court for more information.The Alabama State Bar Association also tracks the status of individual counties.
Alaska AK Court Website Trials may go forward in court locations with two consecutive weekly readings below the DHSS high alert level. Check with local court. In-person proceedings are subject to enhanced safety requirements. Remote appearances are preferred. Access to many local court clerks may be by appointment only. Check with local court.
Arizona AZ Court Website Jury trials may proceed at the discretion of presiding judge. Check with local court. Courts are transitioning back to in-person pursuant to a four-phased plan. Activities are subject to very location-specific safety considerations. Check with local court.
Arkansas AR Court Website Jury trials are proceeding with location-specific limitations. Check local court for more information. In-person hearings are being conducted. Remote hearings may be held at presiding judge's discretion. Check local court for more information.
California CA Court Website Status is very court-specific. Individual court status is available online. Very court specific. See Pandemic Continuity of Operations Resource Guide and check individual court for more information.
Colorado CO Court Website Jury trials are proceeding in courts where the chief judge determines health guidelines can be met. Check local court for more information.. Procedures/limitations are very court-specific, and many courts use remote hearings except for designated matter-types. Check local court for more information.
Connecticut CT Court Website Jury trials are proceeding normally. Most facilities are open to the public, and mask use is voluntary.But many proceedings remain online. Check local court for more information.
Delaware DE Court Website Jury trials are proceeding normally. See Court Website. Normal operations have resumed. Mask use is voluntary, and remote hearings are encouraged. See court website for most up-to-date requirements.
District of Columbia DC Court Website Jury trials are proceeding normally. Pursuant to Amended Chief Judge Order 6-10-22, preliminary hearings, detention hearings, and non-jury trials are scheduled based upon a detailed plan. Designated deadline suspensions, tolling, and extensions will continue until September, 2022. Hearings continue to be primarily remote. Safety measures, including face masks, remain in effect. A target of 8/1/22 was set for operations "...consistent with the plan for reimagining the Superior Court, which will be released in the relatively near future". Check local court for more information.
Florida FL Court Website Jury proceedings have/can resume(d) 30 days after a circuit/county transitions to Phase 2 of four-phased plan. Multiple courts are conducting civil juries via videoconferencing. Check local court. Mask use is voluntary. See Amendment 3 to AOSC21-17 Remote hearings encouraged, and remote participation may be required. Check local circuit court or county court.
Georgia GA Court Website Jury trials proceeding subject to safety guidelines and local discretion. Check local court. Mask use is generally optional, but check local court for more information.
Hawaii HI Court Website Jury trials are proceeding pursuant to circuit-specific plans in compliance with social distancing and other safety requirements. Check local court. Adjusted pursuant to regional health status by circuit. Most Circuits have lifted COVID-19 emergency orders and no longer require health screening upon entry. Mask use is optional. Presiding judges have scheduling discretion to ensure health and safety. Check local court for more information.
Idaho ID Court Website Jury trials underway subject to local COVID metrics and 2/17/22 Order requirements. Jury proceedings once commenced should continue to verdict unless a significant increase in the county's weekly COVID-19 incidence rate or other local coronavirus metric justifies suspension. Check local court for more information.

Per 2/17/22 Order, administrative district judges determine appropriate safety protocol; presiding judges have discretion regarding in-person vs.remote hearings.Mask use is optional in the Supreme Court Building. Check local court for more information.

Illinois IL Court Website Very court specific, but trials have resumed in most jurisdictions. Check local court for more information. Varies by circuit, but courts have significant latitude to restrict in-person hearings. Enumerated matters (e.g. bench trials) can be heard remotely with defendant/party consent. Mask use is optional. Check local court for more information.
Indiana IN Court Website Jury trials are proceeding under individual court transition plans. Check IN Court Website and local court for more information.. Trial courts are operating under individual transition plans. Remote hearings are preferred and encouraged. Check IN Court Website and local court for more information.
Iowa IA Court Website Jury trials are proceeding provided safety protocols are met. Check local court for more information. In-person hearings and non-jury trials are proceeding provided safety protocols are met. Check local court for more information.
Kansas KS Court Website

Jury trials are proceeding pursuant to safety plans. Check local court for more information.

Chief judges are adjusting protocols based on local health conditions. Courts have generally returned to normal operations, but are encouraged to use remote hearings. Check local court for more information.
Kentucky KY Court Website Jury trials are proceeding subject to presiding judge's discretion, with in-custody criminal trials having priority. Check local court for more information.

Presiding judges may enforce health protocol as appropriate. Remote hearings are encouraged Mask use is optional except as may be required by presiding judge. Check local court for more information.

Louisiana LA Court Website

Jury trials proceeding subject to local health restrictions.

Check local court for more information.

Very court specific. Check local court for more information.

Maine ME Court Website Criminal jury trials are proceeding. See Post-Pandemic Management Order PPMO-SJC-1 and PPMO-SJC-2. Check Courts Alerts page for individual court status. Mask use is optional except in small conference rooms or similar confined spaces, where they may be required. Judges may also defer to remote hearings. See Post-Pandemic Management Order PPMO-SJC-1 and PPMO-SJC-2. Also check ME Court Website and Courts Alerts page for individual court status.
Maryland MD Court Website Jury trials are proceeding normally. Check local court for more information. Operating normally. Check local court for individual court status.
Massachusetts MA Court Website Jury trials are proceeding normally.

Mask use is optional. Check local court for more information. Individual closure status is also available at Temporary court closures due to COVID-19.

Michigan MI Court Website Jury trials are proceeding subject to local health restrictions. Check local court for more information. All courts are currently following local public health guidelines. In-person proceedings at presiding judge's discretion. Check local court for more information.
Minnesota MN Court Website Jury trials proceeding. Civil jury trials may be conducted remotely if all parties agree. Check local court for more information. "Transitional case strategies" under the judicial "Preparedness Plan" are underway. In-person restrictions based upon type of hearing: criminal settlement conferences, mandatory misdemeanor criminal trials and contested hearings, and Grand Jury Proceedings continue to take place in-person. All other proceedings are remote barring extenuating circumstances. The Chief Judge in each District can require masks in districts designated "high" COVID-19 Community Level in accordance with the new CDC guidelines. Individuals who prefer to wear a face covering may continue to do so. Face coverings will be provided by court staff upon request. Check local court for more information.
Mississippi MS Court Website Jury trials are proceeding in counties that meet health benchmarks. Check local court for more information.

Pursuant to 1/11/22 Order, individual judges have discretion to control their general dockets.

Check local court for more information.

Missouri MO Court Website

Jury trials have resumed.

Decisions to be made at the local level.

In-person hearings have resumed.

Decisions to be made at the local level.

Montana MT Court Website

Plans to conduct jury trials are decided at the local level and must meet health and social distancing requirements.

In-person hearings allowed with protective measures. Remote hearings will continue as well.

Nebraska NE Court Website

Jury trials resumed.

Scroll down on this page to find local court orders.

Most health and safety decisions to be made at the local level.

In-person hearings have resumed.

Scroll down on this page to find local court orders.

Most health and safety decisions to be made at the local level.

Nevada NV Court Website

Jury trials are being conducted.

Check local courts.

Appearance by alternative means is preferred over in-person hearings.

Check local courts.

New Hampshire NH Court Website

Jury trials resumed.

Check local courts.

Additional information found here.

In-person hearings and operations returned to normal status. Remote hearings still allowed.

Check local courts.

Additional information found here.

New Jersey NJ Court Website

Jury trials and grand juries resumed.

Technology rooms available for virtual hearings if needed.

Mask requirements in effect for in-person jury trials and grand juries.

Continuing preference for remote hearings. Technology rooms available for virtual hearings if needed.

New Mexico NM Court Website

Jury trials have resumed.

Mask requirements in effect in courtrooms and jury assembly rooms.

Certain criminal and civil hearings are presumed to be in-person. Remote hearings are still allowed.

Mask requirements in effect in courtrooms.

Check local court.

New York NY Court Website

In-person civil and criminal jury trials have resumed.

Check local court orders.

Proof of current vaccination required to enter courts without a mask.

In-person hearings resumed. Remote hearings are still allowed.

Check local court orders.

Proof of current vaccination required to enter courts without a mask.

North Carolina NC Court Website

Decisions to be made at the local level.

Check local courts.

Decisions to be made at the local level. Remote proceedings remain authorized.

Check local courts.

North Dakota ND Court Website

Statewide orders expired 3/1/22.

Jury trials proceeding. Check local courts.

Live stream available here.

Statewide orders expired 3/1/22.

In-person hearings proceeding. Check local courts.

Live stream available here.

Ohio OH Court Website

Jury trials proceeding.

Chief Justice recommends all court participants mask regardless of vaccination status.

Check local court orders.

In-person hearing proceeding.

Courts are empowered and encouraged to hold electronic hearings where appropriate.

Chief Justice recommends all court participants mask regardless of vaccination status.

Check local court orders.

Oklahoma OK Court Website

Jury trials resumed.

Check county notices.

In-person hearings resumed.

Check county notices.

Oregon OR Court Website

Jury trials may be conducted in person or remotely as determined by the presiding judge.

Find live streams here.

Check local court orders.

Hearings may be conducted in person or remotely as determined by the presiding judge.

Find live streams here.

Check local court orders.

Pennsylvania PA Court Website

Jury trials resumed. Decisions made at the local court level.

Check local courts.

In-person hearings resumed. Decisions made at the local court level.

Check local courts.

Rhode Island RI Court Website

Jury trials may resume in person without restrictions. Remote bench trials still allowed.

Court links found here. Public access to trials available on live stream.

In-person hearings to resume in all courts. Remote hearings still allowed.

Court links found here.

Public access to hearings available on live stream.

South Carolina SC Court Website

Statewide restrictions expired.

Decisions on jury trials to be made at the local level.

Check local court status.

Statewide restrictions expired.

Decisions on in-person hearings to be made at the local level.

Check local court status.

South Dakota SD Court Website

Jury trials resumed.

Check local court orders.

In-person hearings resumed. Restrictions on remote hearings suspended.

Check local court orders.

Tennessee TN Court Website

Jury trials resumed.

Judicial district plans on conducting in-person jury trials found here.

Judicial district plans on conducting in-person hearings found here.

Use of remote hearings encouraged.

Texas TX Court Website

All courts are permitted to hold in-person jury trials.

Remote jury proceedings not allowed in criminal cases where a party objects.

Live stream available.

Judicial emergency extended through 9/1/22.

All courts are permitted to hold in-person hearings. Remote proceedings limited in criminal hearings.

Live stream available.

Judicial emergency extended through 9/1/22.

Utah UT Court Website

Check individual court status. Each district must follow CDC guidelines.

In-person jury trials allowed. Some limitations if court is in an area with high community transmission levels.

Check individual court status. Each district must follow CDC guidelines.

In-person hearings allowed. Some limitations if court is in an area with high community transmission levels.

Links to remote hearings found here.

Vermont VT Court Website

Judicial emergency extended to 8/31/22.

Jury trials may be held with authorization from Chief Superior Judge and Court Administrator.

Masks required in all public areas of the courthouse, including courtrooms.

Check local court status.

Judicial emergency extended to 8/31/22.

Limited in-person hearings permitted. Remote hearings encouraged. (Certain courthouses can only accommodate a limited number of in-person hearings due to ventilation systems.)

Masks required in all public areas of the courthouse, including courtrooms.

Check local court status.

Virginia VA Court Website

Judicial emergency expired 6/22/22.

Decisions regarding jury trials to be made at the local level.

Check local courts.

Judicial emergency expired 6/22/22.

Decisions regarding in-person hearings to be made at the local level.

Check local courts.

Washington WA Court Website

Jury trial resumption decided at the local level.

Supreme Court COVID-19 related orders found here.

Check local court closures.

In-person hearings resumed. Remote preferred. Certain counties providing virtual court hearings.

Supreme Court COVID-19 related orders found here.

Check local court closures.

West Virginia WV Court Website

In-person jury trials resumed.

Decisions to be made at the local level.

Check local court status.

In-person hearings resumed. Decisions to be made at the local level. Remote hearings still allowed.

Check local court status.
Wisconsin WI Court Website

Statewide mandates rescinded.

Check local court orders (scroll down), revised orders, and closures.

Statewide mandates rescinded.

Check local court orders (scroll down), revised orders, and closures.

Wyoming WY Court Website

Jury trials proceeding but cannot be conducted without an approved operating plan.

Check local court status at the bottom of this page.

Current emergency order effective until 2/1/23.

In-person hearings may proceed. Remote appearances encouraged.

Check local court status at the bottom of this page.

Current emergency order effective until 2/1/23.