Every Massachusetts tenant knows that living in an apartment or condo complex is often challenging, especially when your neighbors' actions interfere with your life in unpleasant ways. Along with noisy neighbors, secondhand smoke is increasingly becoming a common tenant complaint. Whether you have a respiratory problem such as asthma, are concerned about the health effects of secondhand smoke (especially if you have children at home), or simply don't like the smell of cigarette smoke wafting into your apartment, there are steps you can take to try to limit your neighbors' smoking or stop it altogether.
Depending on where you live in Massachusetts, the law may be on your side, especially if you live in public housing or university housing. Regardless of where you call home, you have some options for dealing with secondhand smoke, specifically cigarette smoke. For advice on dealing with marijuana smoke, see Nolo articles on stopping marijuana smoke from affecting your family and special issues regarding marijuana smoking in condo associations.
As nonsmoking laws become more prevalent (such as in the workplace; see Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 270, § 22), more and more landlords prohibit smoking altogether in their rental units or restrict smoking to common areas. Since there is no legal right to smoke, landlords can enact any type of smoking policy they want. It can just apply to part of a complex or all of it. The landlord just has to clearly designate the smoking and nonsmoking areas.
If you're concerned with secondhand smoking, one of the first things you should do is check your lease regarding smoking policies. If your lease does not say anything about smoking, then you should ask your landlord if there is a smoking policy for the complex. If there is, have your landlord give it to you in writing and include it as part of the lease. (Ideally, you will have done this before signing a lease, especially if you or someone in your family is particularly sensitive to secondhand smoke.)
If you live in a condo, you should also check with your homeowners' association (HOA) to see if there are smoking restrictions for your building or common areas. Be sure to also look at provisions in the lease (or CC&Rs, if an HOA) that deal with nuisances, as secondhand smoke can be considered a legal nuisance in some situations.
Currently, Massachusetts does not have a statewide law prohibiting smoking in private residential units, such as apartments and condos. However, landlords can enact nonsmoking bans in apartment and condo complexes. These bans can apply to the entire building or just a portion of the building. The Massachusetts Department of Public Health provides resources for both landlords and tenants who are looking for smoke-free housing options.
If you live in public housing or university housing, you are more likely to have laws that restrict or prohibit smoking in your apartment or common areas. Many Massachusetts cities (such as Boston, Cambridge, and Lowell) have adopted smoke-free policies for public housing. Likewise, many Massachusetts universities have also adopted smoke-free policies, including Harvard University and the University of Massachusetts.
To see if your city or county has a law prohibiting or restricting smoking in private or public residences, visit the American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation; this organization also has extensive resources for tenants concerned with secondhand smoke (as well as information on e-cigarettes and vaping). To check if your university is smoke or tobacco-free, visit the Tobacco Free College Campus Initiative.
If you have found that either your lease or a local law prohibits or restricts smoking in rental units, you should first try talking to your landlord about the situation. If other tenants are affected by secondhand smoke, see if they will join you in expressing concerns to the landlord. You should explain the lease provisions or laws and ask your landlord to enforce them to get the offending neighbor to stop smoking. You may feel more comfortable writing your landlord a letter or sending an email, rather than talking face-to-face. Putting your research in writing and asking for reasonable solutions can often be effective in solving the problem. Keep copies of all letters, emails, or notes of meetings with your landlord in case you need them for any future legal actions.
Remember to be respectful in your communications with your landlord. Detail your concerns and the problems you have been having with the secondhand smoke, and point out the specific lease provision or law (if any) that prohibits or restricts smoking in your apartment building or condo complex. Provide some potential solutions to the problem (such as fixing cracks in the walls or repairing faulty vents that allow smoke to drift into your home from a neighboring apartment). Be sure to leave your contact information so the landlord can discuss the matter with you further.
Even if you have not found a lease provision or local law that prohibits or restricts smoking on the rental property, you (and any other concerned tenants) should still try to talk to your landlord, especially if your health (or another family member's) is at risk from secondhand smoking. Perhaps you can help your landlord establish a smoking policy in your apartment complex. You might be able to come up with a reasonable compromise, such as restricting smoking to certain areas or times. The American Lung Association website has lots of useful information to help support your case; see, for example, Smokefree Policies in Multi-Unit Housing - Steps for Success.
If you can't reach a solution with your landlord and the secondhand smoke is disrupting your life or affecting your health, then you might consider moving out. Depending on the situation, you may have the right to break your lease because of the health effects of the secondhand smoking.
Depending on the severity of the problem, you may even want to consider bringing a lawsuit against the rental property owner. You might be able to claim that the secondhand smoke constitutes a nuisance or disrupts your right to quiet enjoyment of the rental unit. Although one court in Massachusetts has ruled that smoke can interrupt a tenant's use of an apartment (see Westland Housing Corp. v. Scott, 312 Mass. 375 (1942), a case about an oil burner that produced excess smoke and fumes), keep in mind that these cases will likely be difficult to win without laws supporting your side.
If you want to sue for money damages only (such as for dry cleaning or medical bills related to the secondhand smoke), you could consider bringing a lawsuit in small claims court. In Massachusetts, you can sue for up to $7,000 in small claims court.
Remember that lawsuits like this can be costly, time consuming, and damaging to relationships. You should consult a lawyer before making the decision to sue and consider whether bringing the lawsuit is worth the trouble.