The usual first step to getting U.S. lawful permanent resident (LPR) status is that a relative or employer completes a visa petition showing that the necessary family or employment relationship exists between the “petitioner” (the U.S. relative or employer) and the “beneficiary” (the person who wants LPR status).
But what if the beneficiary has children who also need or want LPR status? When and how can those children do so? The answer is not the same in every case. Sometimes, children can be included by naming them on their parent's visa petition (if they qualify as "derivatives"); and sometimes not, as described in this article.
Which Form Is Used for the Initial Visa Petition
The visa petition that starts the immigration process must be submitted on Form I-130 if it is a family-based case and on Form I-140 if it is a employment-based case. See "The Visa Petition: First Step for Family and Employment Green Cards" for details.
Different Types of Beneficiaries
Children can immigrate (or adjust status) at the same time as a parent if the child is eligible for an immigrant visa as either a:
“derivative beneficiary” of a visa petition that was filed for his or her parent (in which case, the parent is known as the “lead beneficiary"); or
“lead beneficiary” in his or her own right, if a petition was filed for the child directly.
When Children Can Immigrate as Derivative Beneficiaries
A child can be a derivative beneficiary if two requirements are met. First, the son or daughter has to qualify as a child under U.S. immigration law. Broadly speaking, this means the child is unmarried, under age 21, and either a biological, adopted, or step-child.
Second, the parent (the “lead beneficiary”) must be eligible for a type of immigrant visa that allows for “derivative beneficiaries,” meaning relatives who have the right to “accompany or follow to join” the lead beneficiary. The law allows derivative beneficiaries to receive LPR status because of their relationship with the lead beneficiary rather than their relationship with the petitioner.
Fortunately, figuring out whether a relative is eligible for a type of immigrant visa that allows for derivative beneficiaries is simple, because only one immigrant visa category does not do so: the so-called “immediate relative” category. The “immediate relative” category includes a U.S. citizen's parents, spouse, and unmarried children under 21 years of age. (For more information about these categories, see "Green Card Through a U.S. Family Member: Who Qualifies?")
The key thing to understand is that if a parent is immigrating in an immediate relative category, then any children will need separate visa petitions filed on their behalf -- and therefore will need to establish a direct family relationship with the petitioner. But if an employer or LPR spouse is the petitioner, a single I-140 for the employee or I-130 for the spouse will cover both parent and children.
What Happens if an LPR Petitioner Becomes a U.S. Citizen?
As mentioned above, an immediate relative of a U.S. citizen cannot bring derivative children when immigrating. But what if an LPR is thinking about becoming a U.S. citizen after he or she has already filed a petition for someone -- most likely a spouse -- who wants to bring his or her children as derivatives?
If, in this example, the LPR becomes a U.S. citizen, the immigrating spouse would become an immediate relative and would not be able to bring derivative children. Therefore, before going forward with an application for U.S. citizenship, the LPR and spouse would first need to figure out whether another way exists for the children to qualify for an immigrant visa.
The children might still qualify if, for example, the couple got married before the children turned 18, so that they qualify directly as the U.S. citizen's stepchild. In such a situation, the new U.S. citizen could simply file separate I-130s on each child's behalf. Then again, if a child was 19 when the parents got married, that child is not a stepchild, and would most likely have to wait until the immigrating parent files an I-130 on his or her behalf in the second preference category (subject to long waits, due to annual limits on visa allocations). See "Getting a Family-Based Green Card" for more information.