It depends on your state's eligibility requirements. To collect unemployment benefits, you must be out of work through no fault of your own. Most states consider employees who are fired for performance reasons or simply because they are a "bad fit" for the position to be eligible for benefits. On the other hand, an employee who commits serious misconduct, such as stealing from the company or violating important safety rules, probably won't be eligible. For more information, see Nolo's article Unemployment Benefits: What If You're Fired?