No. Small claims courts primarily resolve small monetary disputes, and in a few states, evictions and restitution of property. No state allows you to use small claims court to file a divorce, guardianship, name change, or bankruptcy, or to ask for emergency relief (such as an injunction to stop someone from doing an illegal act). A few states also prohibit small claims suits based on libel, slander, false arrest, and a few other legal theories.
For more information, see Nolo's article What Types of Cases Can Be Resolved in Small Claims Court?