To form a corporation in Georgia, you need to take the steps set forth below. To find out what’s required to form a corporation in any other state, see Nolo’s 50-State Guide to Forming a Corporation.
1. Choose a Corporate Name
Your corporation's name must not be more than 80 characters long (including punctuation and spaces) and it must end with one of the following terms or its abbreviation: "Incorporated," "Corporation," "Company," or "Limited." The name cannot state or imply that the corporation is organized for some purpose other than the one specified in its articles of incorporation.
Your corporation's name must recognizably different from the names of other business entities already on file with the Georgia Secretary of State Corporations Division. Names may be checked for availability by searching the Corporations Division business name database. You may reserve a name for 30 days. The reservation fee is $25. The reservation may be made at the Corporations Division website.
2. Prepare and File Certificate of Incorporation
Your corporation is legally created by filing Articles of Incorporation with the Georgia Secretary of State Division of Corporations. The articles must include the corporate name and address; the purpose; the name and address of an agent for service of process; the number of shares the corporation is authorized to issue; and the name and address of each incorporator. Georgia does not have an Articles of Incorporation form for applicants to use. You must draft your own articles on 8.5" x 11"paper. A detailed guide prepared by the Corporations Division, titled Filing Procedures, explains how to draft your articles and includes helpful examples.
The filing fee is $100. The articles must be filed by postal mail.
3. Appoint a Registered Agent
Every Georgia Corporation must have an agent for service of process in the state. This is an individual or business entity that agrees to accept legal papers on the corporation's behalf if it is sued. The registered agent may be either an individual resident or business entity that is authorized to do business in Georgia. The agent should agree to accept service of process on your corporation's behalf prior to designation.
4. Set Up a Corporate Records Book
Set up a corporate records book in which you keep all of your corporation's important papers, including minutes of director and shareholder meetings, stock certificates, and stock certificate stubs. Keep your corporate records book at the principal office of your corporation. You can use a three-ring binder as the corporate records book; or order a special corporate records kit through a corporate kit supplier.
5. Prepare Corporate Bylaws
Bylaws are an internal corporate document that set out the basic ground rules for operating your corporation. They are not filed with the state. Your corporation is not legally required to have corporate bylaws, but you should adopt them because they (1) establish your corporation's operating rules, and (2) help show banks, creditors, the IRS, and others that your corporation is legitimate. For corporate bylaw forms, see Nolo’s website or Incorporate Your Business, by Anthony Mancuso (Nolo). Corporate kits also typically contain sample bylaws.
6. Appoint Initial Corporate Directors
The incorporator—the person who signed the articles—must appoint the initial corporate directors who will serve on the board until the first annual meeting of shareholders (when the board members who will serve for the next term are elected by the shareholders). The incorporator must fill in an “Incorporator’s Statement” showing the names and addresses of the initial directors. The incorporator must sign the statement and place a copy in the corporate records book. The statement need not be filed with the state. For a sample Incorporator's Statement, see Incorporate Your Business, by Anthony Mancuso (Nolo).
7. Hold Your First Board of Directors Meeting
The first meeting of the corporation's board of directors should be held at which the directors can appoint corporate officers, adopt bylaws, select a corporate bank, authorize issuance of shares of stock, set the corporation's fiscal year, and adopt an official stock certificate form and corporate seal. The directors' actions must be recorded in corporate minutes prepared by the incorporator or any of the directors. Additionally, if the corporation will be an S corporation, the directors should approve the election of S corporation status. It is usually necessary to prepare the minutes over one or two weeks, and then send them to all the directors for their signature. For corporate meeting minute forms, see Nolo’s website or refer to Incorporate Your Business, by Anthony Mancuso (Nolo).
8. Issue Stock
Issue stock to each shareholder. Although not legally required in most states, small corporations usually issue paper stock certificates. Enter each shareholder's name and contact information in the corporation’s stock transfer ledger.
A share of stock in your corporation is classified as a security under state and federal securities laws that regulate the offer and sale of corporate stock. However, the federal government and all states exempt most small corporations from these laws. For example, federal law exempts "private offerings:" a non-advertised sale to a limited number of people (generally 35 or fewer). Most states have enacted their own versions of this SEC exemption. Visit your state securities office website for information about your state's securities laws. Links to all such offices can be found at the Contact Your Regulator webpage of the North American Securities Administrators Association.
9. Comply with Georgia Annual Registration Requirements
Within 90 days of incorporation, each Georgia corporation must file an initial “annual” registration form that lists three principal officers with the Secretary of State. The fee is $50. The registration form should be filed online. Corporations that form between October 2 and December 31 file the initial form between January 1 and April 1 of the ensuing year.
An annual registration must be filed online every year after the initial year. The registration fee is $50. A corporation that does not submit its annual registration is subject to administrative dissolution. There is a $250 fee to reinstate an administratively dissolved corporation.
10. Comply With Other Tax and Regulatory Requirements
Additional tax and regulatory requirements apply to your corporation. These include:
EIN: Your corporation must obtain a federal employer identification number (EIN). You may obtain an EIN by completing an online application on the IRS website. There is no filing fee.
S Corporation Filing: If the corporation wants to elect S corporation status for tax purposes, it must submit Form 2553 Election by a Small Business Corporation (signed by all the shareholders). The election should be filed within two months and 15 days after the beginning of the corporation's first tax year. See the IRS S Corporation Fact Sheet for details.
Business Licenses: Depending on its type of business and where it is located, your corporation may need to obtain other local and state business licenses.
11. Foreign Corporations Doing Business in Georgia
All corporations organized outside of Georgia must register with the Georgia Secretary of State to do business in Georgia. Foreign corporations must appoint a registered agent for service of process physically located in Georgia. To register, file an Application for Certificate of Authority for Foreign Corporation. The application must be accompanied by an original certificate of good standing, no more than 90 days old, certified by the foreign corporation's home state.
The application must be filed by postal mail. There is a $225 application fee.