In Maine, you can establish a sole proprietorship without filing any legal documents with the Maine state government. There are four simple steps you should take:
- Choose a business name.
- File a certificate with the city or town clerk.
- Obtain licenses, permits, and zoning clearance.
- Obtain an Employer Identification Number.
To find out how to establish a sole proprietorship in any other state, see Nolo’s 50-State Guide to Establishing a Sole Proprietorship.
1. Choose a Business Name
In Maine, a sole proprietor may use his or her own given name or may use an assumed business name or trade name. If you plan to use an assumed business name, state law requires that the name be distinguishable from the name of another company currently on record. It is also a good idea to choose a name that is not too similar to another registered business because of common and federal law trademark protections. To make sure your business name is available, run a search in the following government databases:
2. File an Assumed Name
If you use a business name that is different from your legal name, Maine requires you to file a certificate of assumed name. This is a mandatory requirement in Maine. To file your assumed name, you must contact the city or town clerk where you plan to do business. The filing fee is approximately $10 but may vary from city to city. After filling out and notarizing the certificate, submit it to the town or city clerk in the parish where you intend to do business.
3. Obtain Licenses, Permits, and Zoning Clearance
Your business may need to obtain business licenses or professional licenses depending on its business activities. Maine provides a comprehensive database of every profession and occupation that requires a license by any sole proprietorship. A business can obtain this information by going to Maine Business Answers provided by the State of Maine. In addition, local regulations, including licenses, building permits, and zoning clearances, may apply to your business. You will need to check with your city and parish governments for more information.
4. Obtain an Employer Identification Number
Sole proprietors who wish to have employees need to obtain an Employer Identification Number, or EIN. This is a nine-digit number issued by the IRS to keep track of businesses. All businesses with employees are required to report wages to the IRS using their EIN. Registering for an EIN can be done online at the IRS website.
Even though sole proprietors without employees are not required to have an EIN, you may want to obtain one anyway. Some banks require one to open a bank account and it can reduce the risk of identity theft.
In Maine, businesses are required to report taxes and file various employee reports. You may need to use your EIN when registering your business to report taxes through the Maine Tax Registration Service provided by the Maine Revenue Service. If you have employees, you must report and pay employment taxes on a periodic basis. You will be able to report and pay all employment related taxes by registering through the Maine Tax Registration Service provided by the Maine Revenue Service.
It is important to consider doing the following once you have established your sole proprietorship:
- Open a business bank account. Using your fictitious business name and EIN, you should set up a bank account to keep your business and personal finances separate.
- Obtain general liability insurance. Because sole proprietors are personally liable for all debts and obligations of the business, a business liability insurance policy may be the only form of financial protection against unforeseen events.
- Report and pay taxes. Depending on your specific business activities, you may be required to report such items as sales tax and use tax. You will need to register with the Maine Revenue Service’s Tax Registration Service.