Credit cards, charge cards, ATM cards, and debit cards are all ways to make purchases or get cash. But each one works differently -- and these differences are important. In order to use these cards wisely, you should know what each one is and how it differs from the others.
The way credit cards work is fairly straightforward: The credit card issuer gives you a card. You use the card to pay for items and services up to a certain total amount -- your credit limit. The store merchant or service provider collects what you owe from the card issuer, whom you repay.
Carrying a balance. If you carry a balance, credit cards function like very expensive loans. The credit card company allows you to pay off what you owe little by little each month, as long as you pay a minimum amount each time. In exchange, you pay interest on the balance you owe (as high as 29% each year) at the end of each period.
How credit card companies make money. Credit card companies earn high profits in several ways.
- High rates of interest -- interest on credit cards accounts for the bulk of the profits earned by banks that issue credit cards.
- Annual fees.
- Late fees, over-the-limit fees, and other miscellaneous charges.
- Charging merchants and service providers a fee each time a customer uses the company's credit card in the merchant's establishment.
The federal Credit CARD Act of 2009. President Obama signed the Credit Card Accountability and Disclosure Act of 2009 (the Credit CARD Act) into law on May 22, 2009. The new law provides additional protections to consumers, including better disclosures of account terms, limits on interest rate hikes, and restrictions on certain billing practices and fees. To learn more about the new law, see Nolo's article The Credit Card Act: More Protection for Cardholders.
Charge cards, also called travel and entertainment cards, are a little different from credit cards. Charge cards, such as American Express and Diners Club, have no credit limit. You can usually charge as much as you want, but are required to pay off your entire balance when your bill arrives.
You cannot carry a balance. If you don't pay your charge card bill in full, you'll get a one-month grace period without interest charges. After that, you'll be charged interest that can be as high as 30 to 35%. If you don't pay after about three months, your account will be closed and your bill sent to the collections department.
How charge card companies make money. Charge card companies make their profits by charging high annual fees -- up to about $90 -- and by charging merchants relatively high fees each time a customer pays using the company's charge card. Some merchants don't accept charge cards for this very reason.
Many people use their credit cards to obtain cash advances. Similarly, many credit card issuers send cardholders "convenience" checks they can use to pay for goods or services. The amount of the check appears on your credit card statement as a charge, but is generally treated as a cash advance.
Cash advances are more expensive than standard credit card charges and have more onerous terms for consumers, including:
- Transaction fees. Most banks charge a transaction fee of up to 4 to 6% for taking a cash advance.
- No grace period. Most banks charge interest from the day the cash advance is posted, even if you pay it back in full as soon as your bill comes.
- Higher interest rates. The interest rate is often substantially higher on cash advances that it is on ordinary credit card charges.
ATM cards are issued by banks, essentially to give bank customers flexibility in their banking hours. In most areas, you can use an ATM card to withdraw money, make deposits, transfer money between accounts, find out your balance, get a cash advance, and even make loan payments at all hours of the day or night.
Debit cards combine the functions of ATM cards and checks. When you pay with a debit card, the money is automatically deducted from your checking account.
Combo ATM/debit cards. Many banks issue a combined ATM/debit card that looks just like a credit card and can be used wherever credit cards are accepted. But don't be mistaken -- they are not credit cards. The money you spend comes out of your checking account immediately.
Pros of debit cards. Many people prefer debit cards over checks for two reasons:
- you don't have to carry your checkbook and present identification, and
- you pay your bills immediately, unlike when you use a credit card and get the bill later.
Cons of debit cards. There are disadvantages to using debit cards.
- Payment is immediate. Many people prefer having 20-25 days to pay their credit card bills.
- No right to withhold payment. Because the money is immediately transferred, consumers using debit cards don't have the right to withhold payment in the event of a dispute with the merchant over the goods or services purchased.
- Transaction fees. Some banks and merchants charge transaction fees for using debit cards.
- High risks if stolen. If your debit card number is stolen during an online purchase, the thief may drain your bank account before the bank is able to complete its investigation. This is why you should never use a debit card when shopping online.
For a comprehensive discussion of credit and debit cards, along with information about budgeting and dealing with debt collectors, get Solve Your Money Troubles: Debt, Credit & Bankruptcy, by Robin Leonard with attorney Margaret Reiter (Nolo).