Copyright management information (CMI) is information conveyed with a copyrighted work that identifies the owner and nature of that copyright. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 prohibits the removal or falsification of CMI as well as the distribution of such altered works. The Act specifically defines copyright management information as:
In 2011, the Third Circuit determined that the CMI rules also applied to non-digital works.
EXAMPLE: A photographer's copyrighted picture of two nude radio "shock jocks" was published in the New Jersey Monthly. The radio station that employed the men scanned and posted the photo online (after removing the photo credit that ran alongside the photo known in the trade as a "gutter credit"). The station then encouraged listeners to download the photo, modify it and resubmit the photos to the station for posting. The Third Circuit ruled that the "gutter credit" qualified as CMI and cutting it off the photo violated the DMCA. (Murphy v. Millennium Radio Group,)