If you are in the U.S. because you fled your country out of fear of persecution – even though nothing terrible actually happened to you before you left – you may still be able to apply for the remedy known as “asylum.” If you are approved, you will receive a work permit and the right to remain in the U.S. and apply for a green card and, eventually, U.S. citizenship.
U.S. immigration law allows a grant of asylum not only to people who have suffered past persecution, but also to applicants who suffered no persecution in the past but have a well-founded fear of future persecution. (See the Code of Federal Regulations at 8 C.F.R. § 1208.13(b).) This article will discuss what it means to have a well-founded fear of persecution.
Although persecution refers to harsh, severe, and offensive acts, it is not limited to some of the things that might first come to mind, such as torture, beatings, or other physical violence.
Someone can succeed with an asylum claim who, for example, was the subject of severe discrimination, harassment, or threats. Sometimes persecution can be shown by a cumulative combination of actions or threats that, by themselves, might be viewed as relatively minor. For more information, see Nolo’s article on “What Counts as ‘Persecution’ When Applying for Asylum or Refugee Status.”
If you can show that you suffered persecution -- or even lower-level harm -- in the past, it will make your task of proving the likelihood of future persecution much easier.
U.S. courts have said that for a person’s fear of persecution to be considered “well-founded,” it must be both:
In other words, the applicant should truly be afraid of returning, but that fear shouldn’t be out of proportion to reality.
The applicant’s credible testimony is enough to show a genuine fear of harm.
Satisfying the objective prong of this two-part test will take a little more work. If you are unable to prove persecution in the past (which gives rise to a rebuttable presumption of a well-founded fear of future persecution), you will need to show a good reason to fear future persecution, by providing credible (believable), direct, and specific factual evidence. That will likely involve submitting documentary evidence (such as human rights reports, newspaper articles, proof of relevant memberships or affiliations, and affidavits by experts) and credible and persuasive testimony (your own story).
Fortunately, asylum applicants don’t have to prove that persecution is guaranteed to await them upon return. In fact, one court said that, “[E]ven a ten percent chance of persecution may establish a well-founded fear.” Al-Harbi v. INS, 242 F.3d 882, 888 (9th Cir. 2001); see also Halim v. Holder, 590 F.3d 971, 977 (9th Cir. 2009. In a case called Matter of Mogharrabi, 19 I&N Dec. 439 (B.I.A. 1987), a four-part test was developed to assess applicants' claims based on future persecution, as described in, "Asylum Based on Fear of Future Persecution: The Four-Part Qualifying Test."
If you have been specifically targeted for persecution, this will greatly strengthen your case. For example, asylum applicants have provided evidence that they were threatened or followed, placed on a death list, received individual warnings, knew of colleagues being killed, and so forth. Similarly, acts of violence toward your family members and friends can help establish a well-founded fear of future persecution, if there’s a connection between the reason they were targeted and the reason you fear the same.
If you cannot show that you were individually targeted, the next best thing is to show a pattern or practice in your home country of persecution of a group of persons similarly situated to you.
Although a fear of future persecution can be sufficient for asylum, this doesn’t relieve applicants of the burden to show that their likely persecution will be based on their race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.
Put another way, it is not enough to show that the applicant’s home country is a frightening place, perhaps due to civil strife or widespread random violence. It may, in fact, be a frightening place, but you still need to show how such conditions are likely to affect your specific situation. The more serious and widespread the threat of persecution to the group with which you are identified or of which you are a member, the less individualized the threat of persecution you need to show.
For more information, see the “Asylum & Refugee Status” section of Nolo’s website.