ADA Amendments: More Protections Against Disability Discrimination
Changes to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) protect more workers from disability discrimination.
In 2008, the ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA) was passed. This law strengthens protections provided in the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) for people with disabilities. The law overturns several Supreme Court decisions and makes clear Congress's intent that the term "disability" should be interpreted more broadly by employers and courts.
The likely result of the law is that more employees will be found to have disabilities and, therefore, be protected from disability discrimination and entitled to reasonable accommodations. (To learn more about the ADA, read Nolo's articles Reasonable Accommodations for People With Disabilities: The ADA and Disability Discrimination in the Workplace: An Overview of the ADA.)
Here are some key provisions of the ADAAA:
"Major Life Activities" Expanded
The ADA defines a disability as an impairment that substantially limits a major life activity. The ADAAA clarifies that major bodily functions, such as cell growth and the proper functioning of the immune, brain, and respiratory systems, also count as major life activities.
This focus on the body's internal functions expands the law to cover serious conditions which have not yet appeared as outward symptoms. For example, many types of cancer wreak havoc on the body in early stages without substantially limiting the patient's ability to breathe, walk, or work. Impairments like these will now be covered without question; in the past, some courts had found that they were not disabilities.
Impairments Don't Have to Be Active
The ADAAA makes clear that episodic impairments (such as asthma) and diseases in remission (as might be true of cancer) are disabilities if they substantially limit a major life activity when they are active. Many serious, even life-threatening diseases wax and wane in intensity or go into periods of remission. This provision ensures that employees with these types of ailments are protected by the ADA.
Corrective Measures Cannot be Considered
Previously, the Supreme Court and many lower courts ruled that corrective measures (such as drug treatments or assistive devices) could be considered when determining whether an employee's condition limited his or her life activities. As a result, employees who controlled their diseases with medication and other treatments were found not to have a disability.
The ADAAA clarifies that, except for ordinary prescription glasses and contact lenses, the corrective measures an employee uses may not be considered in determining whether the employee has a disability.
Clarification of Protections For Those "Regarded As" Having a Disability
The ADA protects not only those who have a disability, but also those who have a history of disability and those whose employers perceive them as having a disability. This last category was intended to protect employees from discrimination based on stereotypes or negative assumptions about their disabilities (for example, that everyone with a mental illness is dangerous, or that someone with a limp won't be able to do a job that requires walking).
In the past, courts have applied different standards to employees seeking to prove these claims. The ADAAA clarifies that an employee needs to show only that the employer regarded him or her as having a physical or mental impairment, not that the employer further believed that impairment substantially limited a major life activity. The law also clarifies that an employee who is making only a "regarded as" claim is not entitled to a reasonable accommodation.
To learn more about the federal laws that apply to the workplace, get The Essential Guide to Federal Employment Laws, by Lisa Guerin & Amy DelPo (Nolo). For information on laws that protect employees from discrimination in the workplace, get Your Rights in the Workplace, by Barbara Kate Repa, J.D. (Nolo).