A required procedure for many foreign nationals who have a job offer from a U.S. employer and want to use it to apply for U.S. permanent residence (a green card). In most cases, the job offer alone is not enough to qualify the potential immigrant for a green card. First, the employer must prove that there are no qualified U.S. workers available and willing to take the job. To do so, the employer must conduct an advertising and hiring process and then turn to the U.S. Department of Labor for individual approval of a labor certification. At that point, the intending immigrant can continue with the process and apply for a green card. This process is also referred to as "PERM," meaning Program Electronic Review Management.